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Protestantism : ウィキペディア英語版

Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.〔(Oxford Dictionary )〕 It is one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy.〔(【引用サイトリンク】 Divisions of womens weave Christianity )〕〔 Anglicanism is sometimes considered to be independent from Protestantism. The term refers to the letter of protestation from Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical.〔''Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church'' (1974) art. "Speyer (Spires), Diets of"〕
With its origins in Germany, the modern movement is popularly considered to have begun in 1517 when Luther published The Ninety-Five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.〔(Protestants: A History from Wittenberg to Pennsylvania 1517 - 1740, p.15 )〕 Although there were earlier breaks from or attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, Arnold of Brescia,〔(Williston Walker: History of the Christian Church )〕 Girolamo Savonarola, John Wycliffe, and Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider, lasting movement.〔(James Watson: Religious Thoughts )〕
All the many Protestant denominations reject the notion of papal supremacy over the Church universal and generally deny the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, but they disagree among themselves regarding real presence of Christ in the Eucharist.〔(Protestants: A History from Wittenberg to Pennsylvania 1517 - 1740, p.32 and p.50 )〕 The various denominations generally emphasize the priesthood of all believers, the doctrine of justification by faith alone (''sola fide'') rather than by or with good works, and a belief in the Bible alone (rather than with Catholic tradition) as the highest authority in matters of faith and morals (''sola scriptura'').〔(Mothering the Fatherland: A Protestant Sisterhood Repents for the Holocaust by George Faithful, p.159 )〕 The "Five solae" summarize the reformers' basic differences in theological beliefs in opposition to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church of the day.〔(Philip Voerding: The Trouble with Christianity: A Concise Outline of Christian History )〕
Protestantism diffused on the European continent during the 16th century. Lutheranism spread from Germany into its surrounding areas, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Prussia, Latvia, and Estonia, as well as other smaller territories.〔(Historical Dictionary of Lutheranism by Günther Gassmann, Duane H. Larson and Mark W. Oldenburg, p.9 )〕 Reformed churches were founded primarily in Germany and its adjacent regions, Hungary, the Netherlands, Scotland, Switzerland, and France by such reformers as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and John Knox.〔(Calvinism by Abraham Kuyper )〕 Arminianism gained supporters in the Netherlands and parts of Germany. In 1534, King Henry VIII put an end to all papal jurisdiction in England after the Pope failed to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon;〔William P. Haugaard "The History of Anglicanism I" in The Study of Anglicanism Stephen Sykes and John Booty (eds) (SPCK 1987) pp.6-7〕 this opened the door to reformational ideas, notably during the following reign of Edward VI, through Thomas Cranmer, Richard Hooker, and other theologians.〔William P. Haugaard "The History of Anglicanism I" in The Study of Anglicanism Stephen Sykes and John Booty (eds) (SPCK 1987) p.7.〕〔(William J. Torrance Kirby A Companion to Richard Hooker )〕 There were also reformational efforts throughout continental Europe known as the Radical Reformation—a response to perceived corruption in both the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Magisterial Reformation led by Luther and various other reformers—which gave rise to Anabaptist, Moravian, and other Pietistic movements.〔(The Radical Reformation, 3rd edition by George Huntston Williams )〕 In later centuries, Protestants developed their own culture, which made major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, and other fields.〔Karl Heussi, ''Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte'', 11. Auflage (1956), Tübingen (Germany), pp. 317-319, 325-326〕
Collectively encompassing more than 950 million adherents, or nearly forty percent of Christians worldwide, Protestantism is present on all populated continents.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=CCC - Global Statistics )〕 The movement is more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either Eastern Orthodoxy or Roman Catholicism,〔 lacking both structural unity and central human authority.〔 Some Protestant churches do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership (notably, the Anglican Communion), while others are confined to a single country, or even are solitary church bodies or congregations (such as the former Prussian Union of churches).〔 Nondenominational, evangelical, independent and other churches are on the rise, and constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity.〔(World Council of Churches: Evangelical churches ): "Evangelical churches have grown exponentially in the second half of the 20th century and continue to show great vitality, especially in the global South. This resurgence may in part be explained by the phenomenal growth of Pentecostalism and the emergence of the charismatic movement, which are closely associated with evangelicalism. However, there can be no doubt that the evangelical tradition "per se" has become one of the major components of world Christianity. Evangelicals also constitute sizable minorities in the traditional Protestant and Anglican churches. In regions like Africa and Latin America, the boundaries between "evangelical" and "mainline" are rapidly changing and giving way to new ecclesial realities."〕
An exact number of Protestant denominations is difficult to calculate and depends on definition. Nevertheless, most Protestants are members of just a handful of denominational families: Adventism, Anglicanism, Baptist churches, Reformed churches, Lutheranism, Methodism, and Pentecostalism.〔

Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest or dissent against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first to be called Protestants.〔(Protestant - Online Etymology Dictionary )〕 The edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of the Holy Roman Emperor three years earlier. The etymology of the word ''protestant'' is derived from Latin, pro ("for") and testari ("witness") and/or protestatio ("declare").〔(What Is A Protestant )〕
During the Reformation, the term was hardly used outside of the German politics. The word ''evangelical'' ((ドイツ語:evangelisch)), which refers to the gospel, was much more widely used for those involved in the religious movement. Nowadays, this word is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations, above all the ones in the German-speaking area such as the EKD.
Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian faiths, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy.
Initially, Protestant became a general term to mean any adherent to the Reformation movement in Germany and was taken up by Lutherans. Even though Martin Luther himself insisted on ''Christian'' or ''Evangelical'' as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants preferred the word ''reformed'' ((フランス語:réformé)), regardless of one's affiliation with the Lutheran or the Reformed branch of Protestantism.
The term ''Protestant'' later acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church, which subscribed to the main Protestant principles.〔 However, it is often misused to mention any church outside the Roman and the Eastern Orthodox communion.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

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