| languages_type = Languages
| languages = English
| languages2_type = Recognised regional
| languages2 =
| languages2_sub = yes
| ethnic_groups =
| ethnic_groups_year = 2011
| demonym =
| government_type = Devolved parliamentary legislature within
| monarch = Elizabeth II
| first_minister = Nicola Sturgeon
| prime_minister = David Cameron
| secretary_of_state = David Mundell
| legislature = Scottish Parliament
| legislature2 = Parliament of the United Kingdom
| sovereignty_type = Formation
| established_event1 = Established
| established_date1 = 9th century (traditionally 843)
| established_event2 = Union with England
| established_date2 = 1 May 1707
| established_event3 = Devolution
| established_date3 = 19 November 1998
| area_rank =
| area_magnitude = 1 E10
| area_km2 = 77933
| area_sq_mi = 30090
| area_footnote = 〔(Region and Country Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October 2013 ), ONS. Retrieved 9 August 2015.〕
| area_label = Land
| percent_water =
| population_rank =
| population_estimate = 5,327,700
| population_estimate_year = 2013
| population_census = 5,313,600
| population_census_year = 2011
| population_density_km2 = 67.5
| population_density_sq_mi = 174.1
| population_density_rank =
| GDP_PPP = |GDP_PPP_rank = |GDP_PPP_year = |GDP_PPP_per_capita = |GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank =
| GDP_nominal = $245.267 billion〔(【引用サイトリンク】author=Scottish Government )〕
(including revenues from
North Sea oil and gas)
| GDP_nominal_rank =
| GDP_nominal_year = 2013
| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $45,904
| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank =
| Gini_year = | Gini_change = | Gini = | Gini_ref = | Gini_rank =
| HDI_year = | HDI_change = | HDI = | HDI_ref = | HDI_rank =
| patron_saints =
| cctld = .scotf
| official_website =
| footnote_a = Often shown abbreviated as "In Defens".
| footnote_b = ''Flower of Scotland'', ''Scotland the Brave'' and ''Scots Wha Hae'' have been used in lieu of an official anthem (see National anthem of Scotland).
| footnote_c = Both Scots and Scottish Gaelic are officially recognised as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages )〕 Under the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005, the Bòrd na Gàidhlig is tasked with securing Gaelic as an official language of Scotland that commands "equal respect" with English.〔Macleod, Angus ("Gaelic given official status" ) (22 April 2005) ''The Times''. London. Retrieved 2 August 2007.〕
| footnote_d = Historically, the use of "Scotch" as an adjective comparable to "Scottish" or "Scots" was commonplace, particularly outside Scotland. Today, however, the term is used to describe ''products'' of Scotland (usually food or drink-related).
| footnote_e = The head of state of the United Kingdom is the monarch (currently Queen Elizabeth II, since 1952). Scotland has limited self-government within the United Kingdom as well as representation in the UK Parliament. It is also a UK electoral region for the European Parliament. Certain executive and legislative powers have been devolved to, respectively, the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood in Edinburgh.
| footnote_f = .scot is not a ccTLD, but a gTLD, open to use by all people in Scotland and related to Scotland. .uk and .eu, as part of the United Kingdom and European Union, are also used. ISO 3166-1 is GB, but .gb is unused.
Scotland (; Scots: ; (スコットランド・ゲール語:Alba) ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=The Countries of the UK )〕 It shares a border with England to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.
Edinburgh, the country's capital and second-largest city, was the hub of the Scottish Enlightenment of the 18th century, which transformed Scotland into one of the commercial, intellectual, and industrial powerhouses of Europe. Glasgow, Scotland's largest city,〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://glasgowcitycentre.co.uk/places-to-go/shops/a-quick-guide-to-glasgow/ )〕 was once one of the world's leading industrial cities and now lies at the centre of the Greater Glasgow conurbation. Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europe's oil capital.
The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, King James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain.〔〔 The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. The Treaty of Union was agreed in 1706 and enacted by the twin Acts of Union 1707 passed by the Parliaments of both countries, despite popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere. Great Britain itself subsequently entered into a political union with Ireland on 1 January 1801 to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Scotland's legal system has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, and Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in public and private law.〔Collier, J. G. (2001) (''Conflict of Laws (Third edition)'' )(pdf) Cambridge University Press. "For the purposes of the English conflict of laws, every country in the world which is not part of England and Wales is a foreign country and its foreign laws. This means that not only totally foreign independent countries such as France or Russia ... are foreign countries but also British Colonies such as the Falkland Islands. Moreover, the other parts of the United KingdomScotland and Northern Irelandare foreign countries for present purposes, as are the other British Islands, the Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey."〕 The continued existence of legal, educational and religious institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union.〔Devine, T. M. (1999), ''The Scottish Nation 1700–2000'', P.288–289, ISBN 0-14-023004-1 ''"created a new and powerful ''local state'' run by the Scottish bourgeoisie and reflecting their political and religious values. It was this local state, rather than a distant and usually indifferent Westminster authority, that in effect routinely governed Scotland"''〕 Following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, this time as a devolved legislature with authority over many areas of home affairs. The Scottish National Party, which supports Scottish independence, won an overall majority in the 2011 general election. An independence referendum held on 18 September 2014 rejected independence by a majority of 55% to 45% on an 85% voter turnout.
Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Scotland / Alba )〕 and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is represented in the European Union and the European Parliament with six MEPs.
== Etymology ==
(詳細はScoti'', the Latin name for the Gaels. The Late Latin word ''Scotia'' ("land of the Gaels") was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, ''Scotia'' was being used to refer to (Gaelic-speaking) Scotland north of the river Forth, alongside ''Albania'' or ''Albany'', both derived from the Gaelic ''Alba''. The use of the words ''Scots'' and ''Scotland'' to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.〔
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』