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Denmark : ウィキペディア英語版


File:United States Navy Band - Kong Kristian stod ved højen mast.ogg
|image_map = EU-Denmark.svg
|map_width = 250px
|map_caption = Location of Denmark〔 (dark green), in Europe (dark grey) and in the European Union (light green)
|image_map2 = Kingdom of Denmark (orthographic projection).svg
|map_caption2 = Location of the : Greenland, the Faroe Islands (circled), and Denmark.
|map2_width = 240px
|official_languages = Danish
|religion = Church of Denmark
|demonym =
|capital =
|latd = 55
|latm = 43
|latNS = N
|longd = 12
|longm = 34
|longEW = E
|largest_city = capital
|government_type =
|leader_title1 = Monarch
|leader_name1 = Margrethe II
|leader_title2 = Prime Minister
|leader_name2 = Lars Løkke Rasmussen
|legislature = Folketing
|area_rank = 133rd
|area_label = Denmark〔
|area_km2 = 42,915.7
|area_sq_mi = (16,562.1)
|area_footnote = 〔(Statistics Denmark )〕
|area_label2 = Greenland
|area_data2 =
|area_label3 = Faroe Islands
|area_data3 =
|population_estimate_year =
|population_estimate = 5,699,220〔 (113th)
|population_label2 = Greenland
|population_data2 = 56,370〔〔2013 estimate〕
|population_label3 = Faroe Islands
|population_data3 = 49,709〔〔
|population_density_km2 = 132.8
|FR_foot5 =  (Denmark)
|GDP_PPP_year = 2015
|GDP_PPP = $257.148 billion〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Denmark )〕〔
|GDP_PPP_rank = 52nd
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $45,435〔
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 19th
|GDP_nominal = $291.043 billion〔〔
|GDP_nominal_rank = 34th
|GDP_nominal_year = 2015
|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $51,424〔
|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 6th
|Gini_year = 2012
|Gini_change = increase
|Gini = 28.1
|Gini_ref = 〔
|HDI_year = 2013
|HDI_change = increase
|HDI = 0.900
|HDI_ref =
|HDI_rank = 10th
| sovereignty_type = History
|established_event1 = Consolidation
|established_date1 =
|established_event2 =
|established_date2 = 5 June 1849
|established_event3 = Danish Realm
|established_date3 = 24 March 1948〔Faroe Islands became the first territory to be granted home rule on 24 March 1948. Greenland also gained autonomy on 1 May 1979.〕
|currency = Danish krone〔In the Faroe Islands the currency has a separate design and is known as the króna, but is not a separate currency.〕
|currency_code = DKK
|time_zone = CET
|utc_offset = +1
|time_zone_DST = CEST
|utc_offset_DST = +2
|drives_on = right
|calling_code = +45〔The Faroe Islands (+298) and Greenland (+299) have their own country calling codes.〕
|cctld = .dk〔The TLD .eu is shared with other European Union countries. Greenland (.gl) and the Faroe Islands (.fo) have their own TLDs.〕
Denmark (; (デンマーク語:Danmark) ) is a country in Northern Europe. The southernmost of the Nordic countries, it is southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark is part of Scandinavia, together with Sweden and Norway. The Kingdom of Denmark〔(デンマーク語:Kongeriget Danmark), . See also: Danish Realm〕 is a sovereign state that comprises Denmark and two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper has an area of ,〔(Denmark Area ) – Geography – Index Mundi. Retrieved 5 June 2012.〕 and a population of 5,699,220 (October 2015).〔July 2015 . (Danish Ministry for Economic Affairs and the Interior )〕 The country consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and an archipelago of 443 named islands,〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.dst.dk/pukora/epub/upload/14847/dkital.pdf )〕 of which around 70 are inhabited. The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate.
The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Danish monarchs ruled the personal Kalmar Union, established in 1397 (of Denmark, Norway and Sweden), which ended with Swedish secession in 1523. Denmark and Norway remained under the same king until the union was dissolved by outside forces in 1814. Caused by the Black Death, the deterioration of the Kingdom of Norway made it possible for Denmark to inherit an expansive colonial empire from this union, of which the Faroe Islands and Greenland are remnants. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several cessions of territory; these culminated in the 1830s with a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialized exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century, making the basis for the present welfare state model with a highly developed mixed economy.
The Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy which had begun in 1660. It establishes a constitutional monarchy—the current monarch is Queen Margrethe II—organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city and main commercial centre. Denmark〔 exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Denmark became a member of the European Economic Community in 1973, maintaining certain opt-outs; it retains its own currency, the krone. It is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, and the United Nations; it is also part of the Schengen Area.
Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks highly in numerous comparisons of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance, prosperity and human development.〔〔(2013 Legatum Prosperity Index™: Global prosperity rising while US and UK economies decline ). ''Legatum Institute'', 29 October 2013.〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/DNK.html )〕 Denmark is frequently ranked as one of the happiest countries in the world in cross-national studies of happiness.〔〔 The country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility,〔Dave Serchuk. (Happy Country=Social Mobility? ) ''Forbes.'' 12 July 2011〕 a high level of income equality, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, and has one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.〔 A large majority of Danes are members of the National Church, though the Constitution guarantees freedom of religion.
(詳細はBog IX. Kong Gorms Saga )〕〔''Indvandrerne i Danmarks historie'', Bent Østergaard, Syddansk Universitetsforlag 2007, ISBN 978-87-7674-204-1, pp. 19–24〕 This is centred primarily on the prefix ''"Dan"'' and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -''"mark"'' ending.
Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, and the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land",〔 related to German ''Tenne'' "threshing floor", English ''den'' "cave".〔J. de Vries, ''Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch'', 1962, 73; N. Å. Nielsen, ''Dansk etymologisk ordbog'', 1989, 85–96.〕 The ''-mark'' is believed to mean woodland or borderland (see marches), with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig.〔Navneforskning, Københavns Universitet 〕
The first recorded use of the word ''Danmark'' within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old () and Harald Bluetooth (). The larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's baptismal certificate (''dåbsattest''), though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative "tanmaurk" () on the large stone, and genitive "tanmarkar" (pronounced ) on the small stone.〔The dative form ''tąnmarku'' (pronounced ) is found on the contemporaneous Skivum stone.〕 The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "tani" (), or "Danes", in the accusative.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

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