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Methodism : ウィキペディア英語版

Methodism, or the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley. George Whitefield and John's brother Charles Wesley were also significant leaders in the movement. It originated as a revival within the 18th-century Church of England and became a separate Church after Wesley's death. Because of vigorous missionary activity, the movement spread throughout the British Empire, the United States, and beyond, today claiming approximately 80 million adherents worldwide.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://worldmethodistcouncil.org/about/member-churches/ )
Distinguishing Methodist doctrines include Christian perfection, an assurance of salvation,〔 the priesthood of all believers, the primacy of scripture and works of piety. Methodism also emphasises "social holiness", missionary zeal, charity and service to the poor and vulnerable. These ideals are put into practice by the establishment of hospitals, universities, orphanages, soup kitchens, and schools to follow Jesus Christ's command to spread the Good News and serve all people. Most Methodists teach that Christ died for all of humanity, not just for a limited group, and thus everyone is entitled to God's grace and protection; in theology, this view is known as Arminianism. It denies that God has pre-ordained an elect number of people to eternal bliss while others are doomed to hell no matter what they do in life. However, Whitefield and several others were considered Calvinistic Methodists.
The Methodist movement has a wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage; denominations that descend from the British Methodist tradition tend toward a less formal worship style, while American Methodism—in particular the United Methodist Church—is more liturgical. Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition; Charles Wesley was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church, and many other eminent hymn writers come from the Methodist tradition.
Early Methodists were drawn from all levels of society, including the aristocracy, but the Methodist preachers took the message to labourers and criminals who tended to be left outside organized religion at that time. In Britain, the Methodist Church had a major impact in the early decades of the making of the working class (1760–1820). In the United States it became the religion of many slaves who later formed "black churches" in the Methodist tradition.

The Methodist revival began with a group of men, including John Wesley (1703–1791) and his younger brother Charles (1707–1788), as a movement within the Church of England in the 18th century.〔(【引用サイトリンク】 What We Believe – Founder of the United Methodist Church )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】 What is Methodism? )〕 The Wesley brothers founded the Holy Club while they were at Oxford, where John was a fellow and later a lecturer at Lincoln College.〔(【引用サイトリンク】Lincoln College, Oxford, Famous Alumni, John Wesley (1703–1791) )〕 The Holy Club met weekly and they systematically set about living a holy life. They were accustomed to receiving communion every week, fasting regularly, abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury and frequently visited the sick and the poor, as well as prisoners. The fellowship were branded as "Methodist" by their fellow students because of the way they used "rule" and "method" to go about their religious affairs. Wesley took the attempted mockery and turned it into a title of honour.
Initially the Methodists merely sought reform, by way of a return to the gospel, within the Church of England, but the movement spread with revival and soon a significant number of Anglican clergy became affiliated with the movement in the mid-18th century.〔(BBC History ) 〕 The early movement acted against perceived apathy in the Church of England, preaching in the open air and establishing Methodist societies wherever they went. These societies were divided into groups called ''classes'' — intimate meetings where individuals were encouraged to confess their sins to one another and to build each other up. They also took part in love feasts which allowed for the sharing of testimony, a key feature of early Methodists. Three teachings they saw as the foundation of Christian faith were:
# People are all, by nature, "dead in sin," and, consequently, "children of wrath."
# They are "justified by faith alone."
# Faith produces inward and outward holiness.
Methodist preachers were notorious for their enthusiastic sermons and often accused of fanaticism. In those days, many members of England's established church feared that new doctrines promulgated by the Methodists, such as the necessity of a new birth for salvation, of justification by faith, and of the constant and sustained action of the Holy Spirit upon the believer's soul, would produce ill effects upon weak minds. Theophilus Evans, an early critic of the movement, even wrote that it was "the natural Tendency of their Behaviour, in Voice and Gesture and horrid Expressions, to make People mad." In one of his prints, William Hogarth likewise attacked Methodists as "enthusiasts" full of "''Credulity, Superstition and Fanaticism''." But the Methodist movement thrived among the working class despite the attacks—mostly verbal, but sometimes violent—against it.
John Wesley came under the influence of the Moravian Church and of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560–1609). Arminius (the Latinized form of the name Jakob Harmaens) denied that God had pre-ordained an elect number of people to eternal bliss while others perished eternally. Conversely, George Whitefield, Howell Harris,〔Richard Bennett, "Howell Harris and the Dawn of Revival", (1909, Eng. tr. 1962), ISBN 1-85049-035-X〕 and Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon were notable for being Calvinistic Methodists. Whitefield, who had been a fellow student of the Wesley brothers at Oxford, became well known for his unorthodox ministry of itinerant open-air preaching and inspired Wesley to likewise preach to those excluded from the Anglican Church. Differences in theology put serious strains on the relationship between Whitefield and Wesley, with Wesley becoming quite hostile toward Whitefield in what had been previously very close relations. Whitefield consistently begged Wesley not to let these differences sever their friendship and, in time their friendship was restored, though this was seen by many of Whitefield's followers to be a doctrinal compromise.〔Dallimore. ''George Whitefield''.〕 As a final testimony of their friendship, John Wesley's sermon on Whitefield's death is full of praise and affection.〔Wesley, "Sermons on Several Occasions", (No. 53 )〕

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

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