Hungary (; (ハンガリー語:Magyarország) ) is a landlocked country in Central Europe.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Geography ::Hungary )〕 It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west, Austria to the northwest, and Ukraine to the northeast. The country's capital and largest city is Budapest. Hungary is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the Visegrád Group, and the Schengen Area. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken non-Indo-European language in Europe.
Following centuries of successive habitation by Celts, Romans, Huns, Slavs, Gepids, and Avars, the foundation of Hungary was laid in the late 9th century by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád in the ''Honfoglalás'' ("homeland-conquest"). His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000 CE, converting the country to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century.〔Kristó Gyula – Barta János – Gergely Jenő: Magyarország története előidőktől 2000-ig (History of Hungary from the prehistory to 2000), Pannonica Kiadó, Budapest, 2002, ISBN 963-9252-56-5, p. 687, pp. 37, pp. 113 ("Magyarország a 12. század második felére jelentős európai tényezővé, középhatalommá vált."/"By the 12th century Hungary became an important European constituent, became a middle power.", "A Nyugat részévé vált Magyarország.../Hungary became part of the West"), pp. 616–644〕 Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526 and about 150 years of partial Ottoman occupation (1541–1699), Hungary came under Habsburg rule, and later formed a significant part of the Austro–Hungarian Empire (1867–1918).
Hungary's current borders were first established by the Treaty of Trianon (1920) after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, and 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary came under the influence of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship (1947–1989). The country gained widespread international attention regarding the Revolution of 1956 and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc.
On 23 October 1989, Hungary again became a democratic parliamentary republic, and today has a high-income economy〔http://data.worldbank.org/income-level/OEC〕 with a very high Human Development Index.〔(Country and Lending Groups | Data ). Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved on 11 August 2014.〕〔(United Nations Development Programme: Human Development Report, 2014 )〕 Hungary is a popular tourist destination attracting 10.675 million tourists a year (2013).〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=UNWTO World Tourism Barometer )〕 It is home to the largest thermal water cave system and the second-largest thermal lake in the world (Lake Hévíz), the largest lake in Central Europe (Lake Balaton), and the largest natural grasslands in Europe (the Hortobágy National Park).
(詳細はHuns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek ''Oungroi'' (Οὔγγροι). According to an explanation the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ''ągrinŭ'', in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic ''Onogur'' ('ten (of the ) Ogurs'). ''Onogur'' was the collective name for the tribes who later joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. The Hungarians likely belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance and it is quite possible they became its ethnic majority.
The Hungarian endonym is ''Magyarország'', composed of ''magyar'' ('Hungarian') and ''ország'' ('country'). The word ''magyar'' is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, ''magyeri''.〔György Balázs, Károly Szelényi, (The Magyars: the birth of a European nation ), Corvina, 1989, p. 8〕〔Alan W. Ertl, (Toward an Understanding of Europe: A Political Economic Précis of Continental Integration ), Universal-Publishers, 2008, p. 358〕〔Z. J. Kosztolnyik, (Hungary under the early Árpáds: 890s to 1063 ), Eastern European Monographs, 2002, p. 3〕 The first element ''magy'' is likely from Proto-Ugric
*''mäńć-'' 'man, person', also found in the name of the Mansi people (''mäńćī, mańśi, måńś''). The second element ''eri'', 'man, men, lineage', survives in Hungarian ''férj'' 'husband', and is cognate with Mari ''erge'' 'son', Finnish archaic ''yrkä'' 'young man'.〔(Sergei Starostin, Uralic etymology )〕
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