Romania〔In English, Romania was formerly often spelled ''Rumania'' or sometimes ''Roumania''. See the etymology section.〕 ( ; (ルーマニア語、モルドバ語():România) ) is a unitary semi-presidential republic located in Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine. It also borders Hungary, Serbia, and Moldova. It covers and has a temperate-continental climate. With its 19.94 million inhabitants, it is the seventh most populous member state of the European Union. Its capital and largest city, Bucharest, is the sixth largest city in the EU.
The River Danube, which is Europe's second longest river after the Volga, rises in Germany and flows southeastwards for a distance of 2,857 km course through ten countries before emptying in Romania's Danube Delta. Some of its 1,075 km length bordering the country drains the whole of it. The Carpathian Mountains (the tallest peak is Moldoveanu at 2,544 m, 8346 ft) cross Romania from the north to the southwest.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Romania Geography )〕
Modern Romania emerged within the territories of the ancient Roman province of Dacia, and was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named ''Romania'' since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. At the end of World War I, Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. During World War II, Romania was an ally of Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union, fighting side by side with the Wehrmacht until 1944, then it joined the Allied powers after being occupied by the Red Army forces. After the war, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards democracy and a capitalist market economy.
Following rapid economic growth in the 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, and is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom. It has been a member of NATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007. Around 90% of the population identify themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians, and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. With a rich cultural history, Romania has been the home of influential artists, musicians, inventors and sportspeople, and features a variety of tourist attractions.
(詳細は"citizen of Rome". The first known use of the appellation was attested in the 16th-century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia.
The oldest surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung",〔Ion Rotaru, ''Literatura română veche'', ("The Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung" ), București, 1981, pp. 62–65〕 is also notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as ''Țeara Rumânească'' (old spelling for "The Romanian Land"; ''țeara'' from the Latin ''terra'', "land"; current spelling: ''Țara Românească'').
Two spelling forms: ''român'' and ''rumân'' were used interchangeably 〔''"am scris aceste sfente cărți de învățături, să fie popilor rumânesti... să înțeleagă toți oamenii cine-s rumâni creștini"'' "Întrebare creștinească" (1559), Bibliografia românească veche, IV, 1944, p. 6.
''"...că văzum cum toate limbile au și înfluresc întru cuvintele slăvite a lui Dumnezeu numai noi românii pre limbă nu avem. Pentru aceia cu mare muncă scoasem de limba jidovească si grecească si srâbească pre limba românească 5 cărți ale lui Moisi prorocul si patru cărți și le dăruim voo frați rumâni și le-au scris în cheltuială multă... și le-au dăruit voo fraților români,... și le-au scris voo fraților români"'' Palia de la Orăștie (1581–1582), București, 1968.
''În Țara Ardealului nu lăcuiesc numai unguri, ce și sași peste seamă de mulți și români peste tot locul...'', Grigore Ureche, Letopisețul Țării Moldovei, p. 133–134.〕 until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: ''rumân'' came to mean "bondsman", while ''român'' retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word ''rumân'' gradually fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form ''român''.〔In his well known literary testament Ienăchiță Văcărescu writes: "Urmașilor mei Văcărești!/Las vouă moștenire:/Creșterea limbei românești/Ș-a patriei cinstire."
In the ''"Istoria faptelor lui Mavroghene-Vodă și a răzmeriței din timpul lui pe la 1790"'' a Pitar Hristache writes: "Încep după-a mea ideie/Cu vreo câteva condeie/Povestea mavroghenească/Dela Țara Românească.〕 Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term ''Rumânia'' to refer exclusively to the principality of Wallachia."〔Goina, Călin. ''(How the State Shaped the Nation: an Essay on the Making of the Romanian Nation )'' in ''Regio – Minorities, Politics, Society''.〕
The use of the name ''Romania'' to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—is first documented in the early 19th century.〔In 1816, the Greek scholar Dimitrie Daniel Philippide published in Leipzig his work ''The History of Romania'', followed by ''The Geography of Romania''.
On the tombstone of Gheorghe Lazăr in Avrig (built in 1823) there is the inscription: "Precum Hristos pe Lazăr din morți a înviat/Așa tu România din somn ai deșteptat."〕 The name has been officially in use since 11 December 1861.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Wallachia and Moldavia, 1859–61 )〕
In English, the name of the country was formerly spelled ''Rumania'' or ''Roumania'', corresponding to the now obsolete Romanian spelling ''Rumânia''.〔See, for example, "(Rumania: Remarkable Common Ground" ), ''The New York Times'' (December 21, 1989).〕 ''Romania'' became the predominant spelling around 1975.〔See the (Google Ngrams for Romania, Rumania, and Roumania ).〕 ''Romania'' is also the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. Other languages, however, continue to prefer forms with ''u'', e.g. French ''Roumanie'', German ''Rumänien'', Polish ''Rumunia'', and Russian Румыния (''Rumyniya'').