Bucharest (; (ルーマニア語、モルドバ語():București), ) is the capital and largest city, as well as the cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is located in the southeast of the country, at , lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than north of the Danube River.
Bucharest was first mentioned in documents in 1459. It became the capital of Romania in 1862 and is the centre of Romanian media, culture and art. Its architecture is a mix of historical (neo-classical), interbellum (Bauhaus and art deco), communist-era and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris" (''Micul Paris'').〔(Bucharest, the small Paris of the East ), on the Museums from Romania web site.〕 Although buildings and districts in the historic city centre were heavily damaged or destroyed by war, earthquakes, and above all Nicolae Ceaușescu's program of systematization, many survived. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an economic and cultural boom.〔Bucica, 2000, p.6.〕
According to 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants live within the city limits,〔 a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census.〔 The urban area extends beyond the limits of Bucharest proper and has a population of about 1.9 million people.〔 〕 Adding the satellite towns around the urban area, the proposed metropolitan area of Bucharest would have a population of 2.27 million people. According to Eurostat, Bucharest has a larger urban zone of 2,183,091 residents.〔 According to unofficial data, the population is more than 3 million.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=EVZ )〕 Bucharest is the 6th largest city in the European Union by population within city limits, after London, Berlin, Madrid, Rome, and Paris.
Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania〔PriceWaterhouseCoopers Global (Regional Attractiveness Report Romania )〕 and is one of the main industrial centres and transportation hubs of Eastern Europe. The city has big convention facilities, educational institutes, cultural venues, traditional "shopping arcades" and recreational areas.
The city proper is administratively known as the "Municipality of Bucharest" (''Municipiul București''), and has the same administrative level as that of a national county, being further subdivided into six sectors, each governed by a local mayor.
The name of ''București'' has an uncertain origin: tradition connects the founding of Bucharest with the name of ''Bucur'' who was either a prince, an outlaw, a fisherman, a shepherd, or a hunter, according to different legends. In Romanian the word stem ''bucurie'' means 'joy', ("happiness")〔Rosetti, II. p.110〕 and it is believed to be of Dacian origin.〔Ion I. Russu, Limba traco-dacilor, 1967, Editura științifică〕
There are other etymologies given by early scholars, including the one of an Ottoman traveler, Evliya Çelebi, who said that Bucharest was named after a certain "Abu-Kariș", from the tribe of "Bani-Kureiș". In 1781, Franz Sulzer claimed that it was related to ''bucurie'' (joy), ''bucuros'' (joyful) or ''a se bucura'' (to become joyful), while an early 19th-century book published in Vienna assumed its name has been derived from "Bukovie", a beech forest.〔Georgescu et al., p.76-77〕
The official city name in full is "The Municipality of Bucharest" ((ルーマニア語、モルドバ語():Municipiul București)).
A native or resident of Bucharest is called a "Bucharester" ((ルーマニア語、モルドバ語():bucureștean)).
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