| area_code =
| blank_name = Police
| blank_info = City of London Police & Metropolitan Police
| blank1_name = International airports
| blank1_info = Heathrow, City (Within Greater London) Gatwick, Stansted, Luton, Southend (Outside Greater London)
| blank_name_sec2 = GeoTLD
| blank_info_sec2 = .london
| website = (London.gov.uk )
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its founding by the Romans, who named it ''Londinium''. London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its medieval boundaries and in 2011 had a resident population of 7,375, making it the smallest city in England. Since at least the 19th century, the term ''London'' has also referred to the metropolis developed around this core. The bulk of this conurbation forms Greater London,〔See also: Independent city § National capitals.〕 a region of England governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.〔The London Mayor is not to be confused with the Lord Mayor of London who heads the City of London Corporation, which administers the City of London.〕 The conurbation also covers two English counties, the City of London and the county of Greater London,〔Lieutenancies Act 1997〕 though historically it was split between the City, Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Kent and Hertfordshire.
London is a leading global city,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title= What's The Capital Of The World? )〕 with strengths in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transport all contributing to its prominence.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title= The World's Most Influential Cities 2014 )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title= Global Power City Index 2014 )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title= London leads the UK for world-class research )〕 It is one of the world's leading financial centres 〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=The Global Financial Centres Index 18 )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title= Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008 )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Global Financial Centres Index 18 )〕 and has the fifth-or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world depending on measurement.〔Rankings of cities by metropolitan area GDP can vary as a result of differences in the definition of the boundaries and population sizes of the areas compared, exchange rate fluctuations and the method used to calculate output. London and Paris are of broadly similar size in terms of total economic output which can result in third party sources varying as to which is defined as having the fifth- and sixth-largest city GDP in the world. A report by the McKinsey Global Institute published in 2012 estimated that London had a city GDP of US$751.8 billion in 2010, compared to US$764.2 billion for Paris, making them respectively the sixth- and fifth-largest in the world. A report by PricewaterhouseCoopers published in November 2009 estimated that London had a city GDP measured in purchasing power parity of US$565 billion in 2008, compared to US$564 billion for Paris, making them respectively the fifth- and sixth-largest in the world. The McKinsey Global Institute study used a metropolitan area with a population of 14.9 million for London compared to 11.8 million for Paris, whilst the PricewaterhouseCoopers study used a metropolitan area with a population of 8.59 million for London compared to 9.92 million for Paris.〕 London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the world's largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title= Beijing to overtake london as world's largest aviation hub )〕 London is the world's leading investment destination,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title= Global Cities Investment Monitor 2015 )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title= Global Investor Intentions Survey 2015 )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title= London Top Target for Global Investors, Secondary Markets Gain Popularity )〕 hosting more international retailers〔(【引用サイトリンク】title= Global Retail Report 2014 )〕 and ultra high-net-worth individuals〔(【引用サイトリンク】title= The Wealth Report 2015 )〕 than any other city. London's 43 universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe, and a 2014 report placed it first in the world university rankings. According to the report London also ranks first in the world in software, multimedia development and design, and shares first position in technology readiness. In 2012, London became the first city to host the modern Summer Olympic Games three times.
London has a diverse range of peoples and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken within Greater London. The Office for National Statistics estimated its mid-2014 population to be 8,538,689,〔 the largest of any municipality in the European Union, and accounting for 12.5 percent of the UK population.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Focus on London – Population and Migration | London DataStore )〕 London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants according to the 2011 census.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=2011 Census – Built-up areas )〕 The city's metropolitan area is one of the most populous in Europe with 13,879,757 inhabitants, while the Greater London Authority states the population of the ''city-region'' (covering a large part of south east England) as 22.7 million.
London was the world's most populous city from around 1831 to 1925.
London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London; Kew Gardens; the site comprising the Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey, and St Margaret's Church; and the historic settlement of Greenwich (in which the Royal Observatory, Greenwich marks the Prime Meridian, 0° longitude, and GMT).〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Lists: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland )〕 Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. London is home to numerous museums, galleries, libraries, sporting events and other cultural institutions, including the British Museum, National Gallery, Tate Modern, British Library and 40 West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world.