Italians ((イタリア語:italiani) (:itaˈljaːni)) are a nation and ethnic group native to Italy who share a common Italian culture, ancestry and speak the Italian language as a mother tongue.〔(Miti e simboli della rivoluzione nazionale ). Treccani.it〕〔(Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country, James D. Fearon ). Department of Political Science, Stanford University〕〔(Italy/Italians: Development of a Nation, how Italy became Italy, and how the Italians became Italians ). worldology.com〕 Legally, Italians are citizens of the Italian Republic, regardless of ancestry or country of residence (though the principle of jus sanguinis is used extensively and arguably more favorably in the Italian nationality law), and are distinguished from people of Italian descent and from ethnic Italians living in territories adjacent to the Italian Peninsula.〔Ruggiero Romano, Corrado Vivanti , (1972). 'I caratteri originali'. In: Giulio Einaudi Editore (ed), Storia d'Italia Einaudi. 1st ed. Torino: Einaudi. pp.958–959.〕
In 2014, in addition to about 55 million Italians in Italy (91.00% of Italian population),〔(【引用サイトリンク】 title = ISTAT )〕 Italian-speaking autonomous groups are found in neighboring countries: about half a million in Switzerland, a large population in France, and smaller groups in Slovenia and Croatia, primarily in Istria and Dalmatia. Because of wide-ranging diaspora, about 5 million Italian citizens〔http://infoaire.interno.it/stat_note.htm〕 and nearly 80 million people of full or part Italian ancestry〔http://www.progettoculturale.it/cci_new/documenti_cei/2011-03/08-23/4%20-%20Rapp%20Italiani.pdf〕 live outside of Italy, most notably in South America, North America, Australia and parts of Europe.
Italians have greatly influenced and contributed to science, arts, technology, cuisine, sports, jurisprudence and banking both abroad and worldwide. Italian people are generally known for their localism, both regionalist and municipalist, attention to clothing and family values.
== Name ==
The term ''Italian'' is at least three thousands years old and has an history that goes back to pre-roman Italy. According to one of the more common explanations, the term ''Italia'', from ,〔OLD, p. 974: "first syll. naturally short (cf. Quint.''Inst.''1.5.18), and so scanned in Lucil.825, but in dactylic verse lengthened ''metri gratia''."〕 was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan ''Víteliú'', meaning "land of young cattle" (''cf.'' Lat ''vitulus'' "calf", Umb ''vitlo'' "calf").〔J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, ''Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture'' (London: Fitzroy and Dearborn, 1997), 24.〕 The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus,〔Dionysius of Halicarnassus,
''Roman Antiquities'', (1.35 ), on LacusCurtius〕 mentioned also by Aristotle〔Aristotle, ''Politics'', (7.1329b ), on Perseus〕 and Thucydides.〔Thucydides, ''The Peloponnesian War'', (6.2.4 ), on Perseus〕
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