Aristotle (;〔("Aristotle" ) entry in ''Collins English Dictionary'', HarperCollins Publishers, 1998.〕 , ''Aristotélēs''; 384322 BC)〔That these undisputed dates (the first half of the Olympiad year 384/383 BC, and in 322 shortly before the death of Demosthenes) are correct was shown already by August Boeckh (''Kleine Schriften'' VI 195); for further discussion, see Felix Jacoby on ''FGrHist'' 244 F 38. Ingemar Düring, ''Aristotle in the Ancient Biographical Tradition'', Göteborg, 1957, .〕 was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle was a child, whereafter Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.biography.com/people/aristotle-9188415?page=1#early-life )〕 At eighteen, he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC). His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, linguistics, politics and government – and constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy. Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great starting from 343 BC.〔Bertrand Russell, ''A History of Western Philosophy'', Simon & Schuster, 1972.〕 According to the ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', "Aristotle was the first genuine scientist in history ... () every scientist is in his debt."
Teaching Alexander the Great gave Aristotle many opportunities and an abundance of supplies. He established a library in the Lyceum which aided in the production of many of his hundreds of books. The fact that Aristotle was a pupil of Plato contributed to his former views of Platonism, but, following Plato's death, Aristotle immersed himself in empirical studies and shifted from Platonism to empiricism. He believed all peoples' concepts and all of their knowledge was ultimately based on perception. Aristotle's views on natural sciences represent the groundwork underlying many of his works.
Aristotle's views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship. Their influence extended into the Renaissance and were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics. Some of Aristotle's zoological observations, such as on the hectocotyl (reproductive) arm of the octopus, were not confirmed or refuted until the 19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic.
In metaphysics, Aristotelianism profoundly influenced Judeo-Islamic philosophical and theological thought during the Middle Ages and continues to influence Christian theology, especially the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle was well known among medieval Muslim intellectuals and revered as "The First Teacher" ().
His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues – Cicero described his literary style as "a river of gold" – it is thought that only around a third of his original output has survived.〔Jonathan Barnes, "Life and Work" in ''The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle'' (1995), .〕
== Life ==
Aristotle, whose name means "the best purpose", was born in 384 BC in Stagira, Chalcidice, about 55 km (34 miles) east of modern-day Thessaloniki. His father Nicomachus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Although there is little information on Aristotle's childhood, he probably spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his first connections with the Macedonian monarchy.〔Anagnostopoulos, G., "Aristotle's Life" in ''A Companion to Aristotle'' (Blackwell Publishing, 2009), .〕
At about the age of eighteen, Aristotle moved to Athens to continue his education at Plato's Academy. He remained there for nearly twenty years before leaving Athens in 348/47 BC. The traditional story about his departure records that he was disappointed with the Academy's direction after control passed to Plato's nephew Speusippus, although it is possible that he feared anti-Macedonian sentiments and left before Plato died.〔Carnes Lord, introduction to ''The Politics'' by Aristotle (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984).〕
Aristotle then accompanied Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. There, he traveled with Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island. Aristotle married Pythias, either Hermias's adoptive daughter or niece. She bore him a daughter, whom they also named Pythias. Soon after Hermias' death, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander in 343 BC.〔
Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During that time he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander.〔Peter Green, ''Alexander of Macedon'', University of California Press Ltd. (Oxford, England) 1991, 〕 Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest and his attitude towards Persia was unabashedly ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be "a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, and to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants".〔
By 335 BC, Artistotle had returned to Athens, establishing his own school there known as the Lyceum. Aristotle conducted courses at the school for the next twelve years. While in Athens, his wife Pythias died and Aristotle became involved with Herpyllis of Stagira, who bore him a son whom he named after his father, Nicomachus. According to the Suda, he also had an eromenos, Palaephatus of Abydus.〔William George Smith,''Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology'', , ()〕
This period in Athens, between 335 and 323 BC, is when Aristotle is believed to have composed many of his works.〔 He wrote many dialogues of which only fragments have survived. Those works that have survived are in treatise form and were not, for the most part, intended for widespread publication; they are generally thought to be lecture aids for his students. His most important treatises include ''Physics'', ''Metaphysics'', ''Nicomachean Ethics'', ''Politics'', ''De Anima'' (''On the Soul'') and ''Poetics''.
Aristotle not only studied almost every subject possible at the time, but made significant contributions to most of them. In physical science, Aristotle studied anatomy, astronomy, embryology, geography, geology, meteorology, physics and zoology. In philosophy, he wrote on aesthetics, ethics, government, metaphysics, politics, economics, psychology, rhetoric and theology. He also studied education, foreign customs, literature and poetry. His combined works constitute a virtual encyclopedia of Greek knowledge.
Near the end of his life, Alexander and Aristotle became estranged over Alexander's relationship with Persia and Persians. A widespread tradition in antiquity suspected Aristotle of playing a role in Alexander's death, but there is little evidence.〔Peter Green, ''Alexander of Macedon'', University of California Press Ltd. (Oxford, England), 1991, and 459.〕
Following Alexander's death, anti-Macedonian sentiment in Athens was rekindled. In 322 BC, Eurymedon the Hierophant denounced Aristotle for not holding the gods in honor, prompting him to flee to his mother's family estate in Chalcis, explaining: "I will not allow the Athenians to sin twice against philosophy"〔''Vita Marciana'' 41, cf. Aelian ''Varia historica'' 3.36, Ingemar Düring, ''Aristotle in the Ancient Biographical Tradition'', Göteborg, 1957, T44a-e.〕a reference to Athens's prior trial and execution of Socrates. He died in Euboea of natural causes later that same year, having named his student Antipater as his chief executor and leaving a will in which he asked to be buried next to his wife.〔(Aristotle's Will ), ''Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt'' by Hildegard Temporini, Wolfgang Haase.〕
Charles Walston argues that the tomb of Aristotle is located on the sacred way between Chalcis and Eretria and to have contained two styluses, a pen, a signet-ring and some terra-cottas as well as what is supposed to be the earthly remains of Aristotle in the form of some skull fragments.〔See ''The Politics of Aristotle'' translated by Ernest Barker, Oxford: Clarendom Press, 1946, p. xxiii, note 2, who refers to ''Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum'', vol. xii, fasc. ix, s.v. Eretria.〕
In general, the details of the life of Aristotle are not well-established. The biographies of Aristotle written in ancient times are often speculative and historians only agree on a few salient points.〔See Shields, C., "Aristotle's Philosophical Life and Writings" in ''The Oxford Handbook of Aristotle'' (Oxford University Press, 2012), . Düring, I., ''Aristotle in the Ancient Biographical Tradition'' (Göteborg, 1957) is a collection of (overview of? ) ancient biographies of Aristotle.〕
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