Thessaloniki ((ギリシア語:Θεσσαλονίκη) ), also known as Thessalonica, Salonika or Salonica, is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace. Its honorific title is Συμπρωτεύουσα (''Symprotévousa''), literally "co-capital", and stands as a reference to its historical status as the Συμβασιλεύουσα (''Symvasilévousa'') or "co-reigning" city of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, alongside Constantinople.
According to the Greek National Statistical Service, the municipality of Thessaloniki had a population of 385,406〔 in 2007, while the Thessaloniki Urban Area (the Thessaloniki Greater Area "TGA") had a population of 800,764.〔 Furthermore, the Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area (the prefecture of Thessaloniki) extends over an area of and its population in 2011 reached a total of 1,104,460 inhabitants.
Thessaloniki is Greece's second major economic, industrial, commercial and political centre, and a major transportation hub for the rest of southeastern Europe; its commercial port is also of great importance for Greece and the southeastern European hinterland.〔 The city is renowned for its festivals, events and vibrant cultural life in general,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Introducing Thessaloniki )〕 and is considered to be Greece's cultural capital.〔 Events such as the Thessaloniki International Trade Fair and the Thessaloniki International Film Festival are held annually, while the city also hosts the largest bi-annual meeting of the Greek diaspora. Thessaloniki is the 2014 European Youth Capital.
The city of Thessaloniki was founded in 315 BC by Cassander of Macedon. An important metropolis by the Roman period, Thessaloniki was the second largest and wealthiest city of the Byzantine Empire. Thessaloniki is home to numerous notable Byzantine monuments, including the Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as well as several Roman, Ottoman and Sephardic Jewish structures. The city's main university, Aristotle University, is the largest in Greece and the Balkans.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI )〕
Thessaloniki is a popular tourist destination in Greece. For 2013, ''National Geographic Magazine'' included Thessaloniki in its top tourist destinations worldwide,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Best Trips 2013 - Thessaloniki )〕 while in 2014 ''Financial Times'' FDI magazine (Foreign Direct Investments) declared Thessaloniki as the best mid-sized European city of the future for human capital and lifestyle.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Η Θεσσαλονίκη αναδείχθηκε σε ευρωπαϊκή πόλη του μέλλοντος για το 2014 | EΛΛΑΔΑ | ΕΙΔΗΣΕΙΣ | LiFO )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】date=17 February 2014 )〕
All variations of the city's name derive from the original (and current) appellation in Ancient Greek, i.e. (; from , ''Thessalos'', and , ''Nikē''), literally translating to "Thessalian Victory". The name of the city came from the name of a princess, Thessalonike of Macedon, half sister of Alexander the Great, so named because of her birth on the day of the Macedonian victory at the Battle of Crocus Field (353/352 BCE).〔
(【引用サイトリンク】title=Definition of Thessaloniki )〕
The alternative name ''Salonica'' (or ''Salonika'') derives from the variant form Σαλονίκη (''Saloníki'') in colloquial Greek speech, and has given rise to the form of the city's name in several languages. Names in other languages prominent in the city's history include ''Солѹнь'' (''Solun'') in Old Church Slavonic, ''סלוניקה'' (''Salonika'') in Ladino, ''Selanik'' (also ''Selânik'') in Turkish (سلانیك in Ottoman Turkish), ''Solun'' (also written as Солун) in the local and neighboring South Slavic languages, ''Салоники'' (''Saloníki'') in Russian, and ''Sãrunã'' in Aromanian. In local speech, the city's name is typically pronounced with a dark and deep ''L'' characteristic of Macedonian Greek accent.〔
The name often appears in writing in the abbreviated form ''Θεσ/νίκη''.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Results for θεσ/νικη )〕
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』