Thucydides (; , ''Thoukudídēs'', ; c. 460 – c. 400 BC) was an Athenian historian, political philosopher and general. His ''History of the Peloponnesian War'' recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens to the year 411 BC. Thucydides has been dubbed the father of "scientific history" because of his strict standards of evidence-gathering and analysis of cause and effect without reference to intervention by the gods, as outlined in his introduction to his work.〔Cochrane, p. 179; Meyer, p. 67; de Sainte Croix.〕
He has also been called the father of the school of political realism, which views the political behavior of individuals and the subsequent outcome of relations between states as ultimately mediated by and constructed upon the emotions of fear and self-interest.〔Strauss, p. 139.〕 His text is still studied at both universities and advanced military colleges worldwide.〔Harloe, Katherine, Morley, Neville, ''Thucydides and the Modern World: Reception, Reinterpretation and Influence from the Renaissance to the Present''. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press (2012). p. 12〕 The Melian dialogue remains a seminal work of international relations theory while Pericles' Funeral Oration is widely studied in political theory, history, and classical studies.
More generally, Thucydides showed an interest in developing an understanding of human nature to explain behaviour in such crises as plague, massacres, as in that of the Melians, and civil war.
In spite of his stature as a historian, modern historians know relatively little about Thucydides's life. The most reliable information comes from his own ''History of the Peloponnesian War'', which expounds his nationality, paternity and native locality. Thucydides informs us that he fought in the war, contracted the plague and was exiled by the democracy. He may have also been involved in quelling the Samian Revolt.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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