Rifampicin (INN, BAN), also known as rifampin (USAN), is a antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.drugs.com/monograph/rifampin.html )〕 This includes tuberculosis, leprosy, and legionella, among others. Often it is used along with other antibiotics. It is also used to prevent ''Haemophilus influenzae type b'' and meningococcal disease in those who have been exposed. Before treating someone for a long period of time testing the liver function and bloods counts are recommended. It is available by mouth and intravenously.〔
Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. It may also turn urine, sweat, and tears a red color. Liver problems or allergic reactions may occur. It is part of the recommended treatment of active tuberculosis during pregnancy even though safety is not clear in pregnancy. Rifampicin is of the rifamycin group of antibiotics. It works by stopping the making of RNA by the bacteria.〔
Rifampicin was first isolated in 1957 and first sold in 1971.〔 It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system. It is available as a generic medication.〔 The wholesale cost is about 3.90 USD a month.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://erc.msh.org/dmpguide/resultsdetail.cfm?language=english&code=RIF600T&s_year=2014&year=2014&str=600%20mg&desc=Rifampicin&pack=new&frm=TAB-CAP&rte=PO&class_code2=06%2E2%2E4%2E&supplement=&class_name=%2806%2E2%2E3%2E%29Antileprosy%20medicines%3Cbr%3E%2806%2E2%2E4%2E%29Antituberculosis%20medicines%3Cbr%3E )〕 In the United States it is expensive with a month of treatment being about 120 USD.〔 Rifampicin is made from ''Amycolatopsis rifamycinica''.
== Medical uses ==
Rifampicin is used in the treatment of tuberculosis and inactive meningitis along with other antibiotics which may include pyrazinamide, isoniazid, ethambutol, and streptomycin ("PIERS"). It must be administered regularly daily for several months without a break, otherwise, the risk of drug-resistant tuberculosis is greatly increased. In fact, this is the primary reason it is used in tandem with the four aforementioned drugs, particularly isoniazid.〔Erlich, Henry, W Ford Doolittle, Volker Neuhoff, and et al. . Molecular Biology of Rifomycin. New York, NY: MSS Information Corporation, 1973. pp. 44-45, 66-75, 124-130.〕 This is also the primary motivation behind directly observed therapy for tuberculosis.
Rifampicin resistance develops quickly during treatment, so monotherapy should not be used to treat these infections — it should be used in combination with other antibiotics.
Rifampicin is also used in the treatment of cholestatic pruritus.
Most doctors recommend taking rifampicin on an empty stomach with one glass (200 ml/8 oz.) of water. It is generally taken either one hour before meals or two hours after meals. However, it is important to discuss how to take any medicine with your doctor.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』