The rifamycins are a group of antibiotics that are synthesized either naturally by the bacterium ''Amycolatopsis rifamycinica'' or artificially. They are a subclass of the larger family of ansamycins. Rifamycins are particularly effective against mycobacteria, and are therefore used to treat tuberculosis, leprosy, and mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections.
The rifamycin group includes the "classic" rifamycin drugs as well as the rifamycin derivatives rifampicin (or rifampin), rifabutin, rifapentine, and rifalazil.
== Bacterium ==
''Streptomyces mediterranei'' was first isolated in 1957 from a soil sample collected near the beach-side town of St Raphael in southern France. The name was originally given by two microbiologists working with the Italian drug company Group Lepetit SpA in Milan, the Italian Grazia Beretta, and Pinhas Margalith of Israel.
In 1969, the bacterium was renamed ''Nocardia mediterranei'' when another scientist named Thiemann found that it has a cell wall typical of the Nocardia species. Then, in 1986, the bacterium was renamed again ''Amycolatopsis mediterranei'', as the first species of a new genus, because a scientist named Lechevalier discovered that the cell wall lacks mycolic acid and is not able to be infected by the Nocardia and Rhodococcus phages.
Based on 16S rRNA sequences, Bala et al. renamed the species in 2004 ''Amycolatopsis rifamycinica.''
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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