| tuberculosis ： ウィキペディア英語版|
Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for ''tubercle bacillus''), in the past also called phthisis, phthisis pulmonalis, or consumption, is a widespread, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually ''Mycobacterium tuberculosis''. Tuberculosis typically attacks the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air when people who have an active TB infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit respiratory fluids through the air. Most infections do not have symptoms, known as latent tuberculosis. About one in ten latent infections eventually progresses to active disease which, if left untreated, kills more than 50% of those so infected.
The classic symptoms of active TB infection are a chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss (the last of these giving rise to the formerly common term for the disease, "consumption"). Infection of other organs causes a wide range of symptoms. Diagnosis of active TB relies on radiology (commonly chest X-rays), as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of body fluids. Diagnosis of latent TB relies on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and/or blood tests. Treatment is difficult and requires administration of multiple antibiotics over a long period of time. Household, workplace and social contacts are also screened and treated if necessary. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infections. Prevention relies on early detection and treatment of cases and on screening programs and vaccination with the bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine.
One-third of the world's population is thought to have been infected with ''M. tuberculosis'', and new infections occur in about 1% of the population each year.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/who104/en/print.html )〕 In 2007, an estimated 13.7 million chronic cases were active globally, while in 2013, an estimated 9 million new cases occurred.〔 In 2013 there were between 1.3 and 1.5 million associated deaths, most of which occurred in developing countries.〔(【引用サイトリンク】author=World Health Organization )〕 The total number of tuberculosis cases has been decreasing since 2006, and new cases have decreased since 2002.〔 The rate of tuberculosis in different areas varies across the globe; about 80% of the population in many Asian and African countries tests positive in tuberculin tests, while only 5–10% of the United States population tests positive.〔 More people in the developing world contract tuberculosis because of a poor immune system, largely due to high rates of HIV infection and the corresponding development of AIDS.〔
==Signs and symptoms==
Tuberculosis may infect any part of the body, but most commonly occurs in the lungs (known as pulmonary tuberculosis).〔 Extrapulmonary TB occurs when tuberculosis develops outside of the lungs, although extrapulmonary TB may coexist with pulmonary TB, as well.〔
General signs and symptoms include fever, chills, night sweats, loss of appetite, weight loss, and fatigue.〔 Significant nail clubbing may also occur.〔
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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