The Rifa'i order / tariqa (also Rufa'i, Rifa'iyya,Rifa'iya) (Arabic, الرفاعية) is an eminent Sufi order founded by Ahmed ar-Rifa'i and developed in the Lower Iraq marshlands between Wasit and Basra. The Rifa'iyya had its greatest following until the 15th century C.E. when it was overtaken by the Qadiri order. The order is said to wield particular influence in Cairo, Egypt.〔Bosworth 2010.〕
The Rifa'i order is most commonly found in the Arab Middle East but also in Turkey, the Balkans and South Asia.
Records indicate Ahmad al-Rifa'i inherited his maternal uncle's, Mansur al-Bata'ihi, position of headship to his religious community in 1145-6 C.E. At this time many followed his activities in and around the village of Umm 'Ubayda. In the Lower Iraq marshlands, the Rifa'i order developed and gained notice throughout the 12th century C.E. due to its extravagant practices. Rifa'i expanded into Egypt and Syria.
In 1268 C.E., Abu Muhammad 'Ali al-Hariri formed the Syrian branch of the order which became known as the Haririya. The Rifa'i gained further popularity in Egypt and Turkey. In the 15th century C.E., its popularity waned and the popularity of the Kadiriyya order rose. Subsequently, interest in the Rifa'i order centered within Arab lands.
The order has a presence in Syria and Egypt and plays a noticeable role in Kosovo and Albania. The Rifa'i Tariqa blends worship styles or ideas with those of other orders that predominate in the local area. For example, the group established by Ken'an Rifa'i in Istanbul that reflects elements of the Mevlevi Order, while more rural Turkish Rifa'is have absorbed significant influence from the Alevi/Bektashi tradition.
The order spread into Anatolia during the 14th and 15th Centuries and ibn Battuta noted Rifa'i 'tekkes' in central Anatolia. The order however, began to make progress in Turkey during the 17th to 19th centuries when tekkes began to be found in Istanbul. The order spread into the Balkans (especially Bosnia, where they are still present), modern day Albania and Kosovo.
In the United States and Canada tekkes (lodges) are found in Staten Island and Toronto that were under the guidance of the late Shaykh Xhemali Shehu (d.2004) of Prizren, Kosovo. Each of these orders is ultimately Turkish in origin.
Dubious or fake so-called 'branches' of the Rifai order also exist, including the self-proclaimed 'Qadiri-Rifai Order' which is based in the USA, with further branches in Australia, UK , Germany and South Africa and other parts 〔See ( The website of this order which makes a lot of dubious claims ) and ( The site of its UK chapter, which is of equally dubious status ) ; in addition various Sufi scholars as well as media reports over the last many years have pointed out that these organizations are impostors, inveigling the public, and to beware of them. It might be advisable to see Abdul Salam Kuypers 'The Qadri-Rifai-Ansari: A Sufi Order or Scam?' , in ''Sufism Today'' September–October issue 2010; and Maulana Syed Asadullah Bukhari, 'The falsehood and the truth: Evaluating Sufi Orders in the West today' New York, 2013, etc〕
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