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・ Turkestan Album
・ Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
・ Turkestan Bhittani
・ Turkestan cockroach
・ Turkestan legion
・ Turkestan Military District
・ Turkestan Province
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・ Turkestanian salamander
・ Turkestanishvili
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・ Turkey (bird)
・ Turkey (disambiguation)
・ Turkey at the 1906 Intercalated Games
・ Turkey at the 1908 Summer Olympics
・ Turkey at the 1912 Summer Olympics
・ Turkey at the 1924 Summer Olympics
・ Turkey at the 1928 Summer Olympics
・ Turkey at the 1936 Summer Olympics
・ Turkey at the 1936 Winter Olympics
・ Turkey at the 1948 Summer Olympics
・ Turkey at the 1948 Winter Olympics
・ Turkey at the 1952 Summer Olympics
・ Turkey at the 1956 Summer Olympics
・ Turkey at the 1956 Winter Olympics

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Turkey : ウィキペディア英語版

|official_languages = Turkish
|demonym = Turkish
|ethnic_groups = ''No official estimates (see demographics section)''
|government_type = Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic
|leader_title1 = President
|leader_name1 = Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
|leader_title2 = Prime Minister
|leader_name2 = Ahmet Davutoğlu
|leader_title3 = Speaker of the Parliament
|leader_name3 = İsmail Kahraman
|legislature =
|sovereignty_type = Succession 〔as stated in the Treaty of Lausanne
|established_event1 = Government of the Grand National Assembly
|established_date1 = 23 April 1920
|established_event2 =
|established_date2 = 24 July 1923
|established_event3 =
|established_date3 = 29 October 1923
|established_event4 =
|established_date4 = 7 November 1982
|area_km2 = 783562
|area_sq_mi = 302535
|area_rank = 37th
|area_magnitude = 1 E11
|percent_water = 1.3
|population_census = 77,695,904 (18th)
|population_census_year = 2015
|population_estimate_rank = 18th
|population_density_km2 = 101 〔
|population_density_sq_mi = 262
|population_density_rank = 107th
|GDP_PPP = $1.576 trillion
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $19,610〔
|GDP_PPP_year = 2015
|GDP_PPP_rank = 17th
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 61st
|GDP_nominal = $722 billion〔〔http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2015/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=52&pr.y=10&sy=2013&ey=2020&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=186&s=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP&grp=0&a=〕
|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $10,482〔
|GDP_nominal_year = 2015
|GDP_nominal_rank = 18th
|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 66th
|Gini_year = 2013
|Gini_change = decrease
|Gini = 40.0
|Gini_ref =〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Gini Coefficient by Equivalised Household Disposable Income )
|Gini_rank = 56th
|HDI_year = 2013
|HDI_change = increase
|HDI = 0.759
|HDI_ref =
|HDI_rank = 69th
|currency = Turkish lira
|currency_code = TRY
|time_zone = EET
|utc_offset = +2
|time_zone_DST = EEST
|utc_offset_DST = +3
|date_format = dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
|drives_on = right
|calling_code = +90
|cctld = .tr
|website = ()
Turkey (; (トルコ語:Türkiye) (:ˈtyɾcije)), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: ), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Syria and Iraq to the south; Iran, Armenia, and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the east; Georgia to the northeast; Bulgaria to the northwest; and Greece to the west. The Black Sea is to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles (which together form the Turkish Straits) demarcate the boundary between Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia.〔 "Europe" (pp. 68–69); "Asia" (pp. 90–91): "A commonly accepted division between Asia and Europe ... is formed by the Ural Mountains, Ural River, Caspian Sea, Caucasus Mountains, and the Black Sea with its outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles."〕 Turkey's location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia makes it a country of significant geostrategic importance.
Turkey has been inhabited since the paleolithic age, including various ancient Anatolian civilizations, Aeolian, Dorian and Ionian Greeks, Thracians, Armenians and Persians. After Alexander the Great's conquest, the area was Hellenized, a process which continued under the Roman Empire and its transition into the Byzantine Empire.〔 The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, starting the process of Turkification, which was greatly accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, upon which it disintegrated into several small Turkish beyliks.
Starting from the late 13th century, the Ottomans united Anatolia and created an empire encompassing much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa, becoming a major power in Eurasia and Africa during the early modern period. The empire reached the peak of its power between the 15th and 17th centuries, especially during the 1520–66 reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. After the second Ottoman siege of Vienna in 1683 and the end of the Great Turkish War in 1699, the Ottoman Empire entered a long period of decline. The Tanzimat reforms of the 19th century, which aimed to modernize the Ottoman state, proved to be inadequate in most fields, and failed to stop the dissolution of the empire. The Ottoman Empire entered World War I (1914–18) on the side of the Central Powers and was ultimately defeated. During the war, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greek citizens.〔Schaller, Dominik J; Zimmerer, Jürgen (2008). "Late Ottoman genocides: the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies – introduction". Journal of Genocide Research 10 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1080/14623520801950820〕 Following the war, the huge conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new states.〔Roderic H. Davison; Review "From Paris to Sèvres: The Partition of the Ottoman Empire at the Peace Conference of 1919–1920" by Paul C. Helmreich in ''Slavic Review'', Vol. 34, No. 1 (Mar. 1975), pp. 186–187〕 The Turkish War of Independence (1919–22), initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues in Anatolia, resulted in the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Turkey )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.todayszaman.com/op-ed_what-really-matters-about-multiculturalism-in-turkey-by-rabee-al-hafidh-_303176.html )〕 The country's official language is Turkish, a Turkic language spoken natively by approximately 85 percent of the population.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Türkiye'nin yüzde 85'i 'anadilim Türkçe' diyor )〕 70–75 percent of the population are ethnic Turks; the largest minority are the Kurds at roughly 20%, with the remainder consisting of Armenians, Greeks, Jews, Circassians, Arabs, Albanians, Bosniaks, Georgians, and others.〔〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.minorityrights.org/4387/turkey/turkey-overview.html )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Toplumsal Yapı Araştırması 2006 )〕 The vast majority of the population is Sunni Muslim, with Alevis making up the largest religious minority.〔 Turkey is a member of the UN, NATO, OECD, OSCE, OIC and the G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.〔 Turkey's growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a regional power.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.giga-hamburg.de/de/system/files/publications/wp204_bank-karadag.pdf )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.dw.de/turkey-from-regional-to-global-player/a-16036132 )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.mfa.gov.tr/sub.en.mfa?7cafe2ef-78bd-4d88-b326-3916451364f3 )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://web.isanet.org/Web/Conferences/FLACSO-ISA%20BuenosAires%202014/Archive/3bae0df8-d05d-4837-9811-73216a2a95bf.pdf )
(詳細はTurkish: ''Türkiye'') is based on the ethnonym ''Türk''. The first recorded use of the term "Türk" or "Türük" as an autonym is contained in the Old Turkic inscriptions of the Göktürks (''Celestial Turks'') of Central Asia (c. 8th century).〔Scharlipp, Wolfgang (2000). ''An Introduction to the Old Turkish Runic Inscriptions''. Verlag auf dem Ruffel., Engelschoff. ISBN 3-933847-00-1, 9783933847003.〕 The English name ''Turkey'' first appeared in the late 14th century and is derived from Medieval Latin ''Turchia''.
The Greek cognate of this name, ''Tourkia'' ((ギリシア語:Τουρκία)) was used by the Byzantine emperor and scholar Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus in his book ''De Administrando Imperio'',〔 According to Constantine Porphyrogenitus, writing in his ''De Administrando Imperio'' (ca. 950 AD) ''"Patzinakia, the Pecheneg realm, stretches west as far as the Siret River (or even the Eastern Carpathian Mountains), and is four days distant from Tourkia (i.e. Hungary)."''〕 though in his use, "Turks" always referred to Magyars. Similarly, the medieval Khazar Empire, a Turkic state on the northern shores of the Black and Caspian seas, was referred to as ''Tourkia'' (''Land of the Turks'') in Byzantine sources. The Ottoman Empire was sometimes referred to as ''Turkey'' or the ''Turkish Empire'' among its contemporaries.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

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