Istanbul ( or ; (トルコ語:İstanbul) ), also known as Constantinople and Byzantion before that, is the most populous city in Turkey, and the country's economic, cultural, and historical center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosphorus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives on the Asian side.
The city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (coterminous〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=conterminous )〕 with Istanbul Province), both hosting a population of around 14 million residents.〔 Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities and ranks as world's 5th-largest city proper and the largest European city.
Founded on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE as Byzantium, the city now known as Istanbul developed to become one of the most significant cities in history. For nearly sixteen centuries following its reestablishment as Constantinople ((ギリシア語:Κωνσταντινούπολις ''Konstantinoúpolis''); (ラテン語:Constantinopolis)) or New Rome ((ギリシア語:Νέα Ῥώμη, ''Nea Romē''); (ラテン語:Nova Roma)) in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for the Roman and Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin (1204–1261), and the Ottoman (1453–1922) empires. It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate.
Istanbul's strategic position on the historic Silk Road, rail networks to Europe and the Middle East, and the only sea route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean have produced a cosmopolitan populace, although less so since the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923. Overlooked for the new capital during the interwar period, the city has since regained much of its prominence. The population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in and city limits have expanded to accommodate them. Arts, Music, Film and Cultural festivals were established at the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today, and infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network.
Approximately foreign visitors arrived in Istanbul in 2015, five years after it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world's fifth most popular tourist destination. The city's biggest attraction is its historic center, partially listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and its cultural and entertainment hub can be found across the city's natural harbor, the Golden Horn, in the Beyoğlu district. Considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world. It hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapid expansion, Istanbul bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years.
Present-day Istanbul is a flourishing city, with a constantly growing skyline which is one of the most prominent in all of Europe and Western Asia. New developments are constantly being implemented including new metro lines, residential buildings and underground transportation projects such as the Marmaray Tunnel which is the deepest underground tunnel in the world. Along with these developments, the city is increasingly becoming the centre of operations for many international organizations such as the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, Turkic Council and D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation.
(詳細はMegarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from a personal name, Byzas. Ancient Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists. Modern scholars have also hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin and hence predated the Megarean settlement.
After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became widely known as "Constantinopolis" (Constantinople), which, as the Latinized form of (''Konstantinoúpolis''), means the "City of Constantine".〔 He also attempted to promote the name "Nova Roma" and its Greek version "Νέα Ῥώμη" ''Nea Romē'' (New Rome), but this did not enter widespread usage. ''Constantinople'' remained the most common name for the city in the West until the establishment of the Turkish Republic, and ''Kostantiniyye'' (Ottoman Turkish ) and ''İstanbul'' were the names used alternatively by the Ottomans during their rule. The use of ''Constantinople'' to refer to the city during the Ottoman period (from the mid-15th century) is now considered politically incorrect, even if not historically inaccurate, by Turks.
By the 19th century, the city had acquired other names used by either foreigners or Turks. Europeans used ''Constantinople'' to refer to the whole of the city, but used the name ''Stamboul''—as the Turks also did—to describe the walled peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara.〔 ''Pera'' (from the Greek word for "across") was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks also used the name ''Beyoğlu'' (today the official name for one of the city's constituent districts). ''Islambol'' (meaning either "City of Islam" or "Full of Islam") was sometimes colloquially used to refer to the city, and was even engraved on some Ottoman coins, but the belief that it was the precursor to the present name, ''İstanbul'', is belied by the fact that the latter existed well before the former and even predates the Ottoman conquest of the city.〔
The name ''İstanbul'' (, colloquially (:ɯsˈtambuɫ)) is commonly held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase (pronounced (:is tim ˈbolin)), which means "to the city"〔Necdet Sakaoğlu (1993/94a): "İstanbul'un adları" (names of Istanbul" ). In: ''Dünden bugüne İstanbul ansiklopedisi'', ed. Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı, Istanbul.〕 and is how Constantinople was referred to by the local Greeks. This reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was also reflected by its Ottoman name 'Der Saadet' meaning the 'gate to Prosperity' in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved directly from the name ''Constantinople'', with the first and third syllables dropped.〔 A Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol "plenty of Islam"〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=istanbul )〕 because the city was called ''Islambol'' ("plenty of Islam") or ''Islambul'' ("find Islam") as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire. It is first attested shortly after the conquest, and its invention was ascribed by some contemporary writers to Sultan Mehmed II himself.〔Necdet Sakaoğlu (1993/94a): "İstanbul'un adları" (names of Istanbul" ). In: 'Dünden bugüne İstanbul ansiklopedisi', ed. Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı, Istanbul.〕 Some Ottoman sources of the 17th century, such as Evliya Çelebi, describe it as the common Turkish name of the time; between the late 17th and late 18th centuries, it was also in official use. The first use of the word "Islambol" on coinage was in 1703 (1115AH) during the reign of Sultan Ahmed III. Nevertheless, the use of the name ''Constantinople'' remained common in English into the 20th century, ''Istanbul'' became common only after Turkey adapted the Latin alphabet in 1928 and urged other countries to use the city's Turkish name. The Vikings were sailing down the Russian rivers from the North Sea, entering the Black Sea and arriving in Constantinople around the 10th century. They used to call Constantinople "Miklagard"〔(Miklagard (The Great City) )〕 meaning the "Big City".
In modern Turkish, the name is written as ''İstanbul'', with a dotted İ, as the Turkish alphabet distinguishes between a dotted and dotless I. In English the stress is on the first syllable (''Is''), but in Turkish it is on the second syllable (''tan''). A person from the city is an ''İstanbullu'' (plural: ''İstanbullular''), although ''Istanbulite'' is used in English.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』