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・ Pittsburg, Nevada County, California
・ Pittsburg, New Hampshire
・ Pittsburg, New Mexico
・ Pittsburg, North Carolina
・ Pittsburg, Oklahoma
・ Pittsburg, Oregon
・ Pittsburg, Shawmut and Northern Railroad
・ Pittsburg, South Carolina
・ Pittsburg, Texas
・ Pittsburg, Utah
・ Pittsburg, Van Buren County, Iowa
・ Pittsburg, Walker County, Georgia
・ Pittsburg-Chartierville Border Crossing
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・ Pittsburgh (1942 film)
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・ Pittsburgh (disambiguation)
・ Pittsburgh A to Z
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・ Pittsburgh Agreement
・ Pittsburgh Allegheny (International Association)
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Pittsburgh : ウィキペディア英語版

|subdivision_type1 = State
|subdivision_name1 =
|subdivision_type2 = County
|subdivision_name2 = Allegheny
|subdivision_type3 = Historic empires
|subdivision_name3 = France
Great Britain
|subdivision_type4 = Historic colonies
|subdivision_name4 = New France
|government_type = Mayor-Council
|leader_title = Mayor
|leader_name = Bill Peduto (D)
|leader_title1 = City Council
|leader_name1 =
|leader_title2 = State House
|leader_name2 =
|leader_title3 = State Senate
|leader_name3 = Jim Ferlo (D)
Jay Costa (D)
|leader_title4 = U.S. House
|leader_name4 = Mike Doyle (D)
|established_title =
|established_date =
|established_title1 = Founded
|established_date1 = November 27, 1758
|established_title2 = Municipal incorporation
|established_date2 = April 16, 1771 (Township)
April 22, 1794 (Borough)
March 18, 1816 (City)
|founder = George Washington,
General John Forbes
|named_for = "The Great Commoner": Prime Minister William Pitt
|unit_pref = Imperial
|area_total_sq_mi = 58.3
|area_land_sq_mi = 55.5
|area_water_sq_mi = 2.8
|area_water_percent = 4.8
|area_urban_sq_mi =
|area_metro_sq_mi = 5343
|elevation_ft =
|elevation_max_ft = 1370
|elevation_min_ft = 710
|population_as_of = 2013
|population_footnotes = 〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.census.gov/popest/data/cities/totals/2013/SUB-EST2013-3.html )
|population_total = 305,841
|population_rank = US: 62nd
|population_density_sq_mi = 5540
|population_urban = 1,733,853 (US: 27th)
|population_metro = 2,360,867 (US: 22nd)
|population_blank1_title = CSA
|population_blank1 = 2,659,937 (US: 20th)
|population_blank2_title = GMP
|population_blank2 = $131.3 billion (23rd)
|population_demonym = Pittsburgher or Yinzer

|timezone = Eastern Standard Time
|utc_offset = −5
|timezone_DST = Eastern Daylight Time
|utc_offset_DST = −4
|latd= 40|latm= 26|lats= 23|latNS= N
|longd= 79|longm= 58|longs= 35|longEW= W
|coordinates_display = 8
|postal_code_type = ZIP Code
|postal_code =
|area_code = 412, 724, 878
|blank_name = FIPS code
|blank_info = 42-61000
|blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
|blank1_info = 1213644
|blank2_name = Expressways
|blank2_info =
|blank3_name = Waterways
|blank3_info = Ohio River,
Monongahela River,
Allegheny River,
Chartiers Creek,
Saw Mill Run,
Becks Run
Street's Run
|blank5_name = Transit
|blank5_info = Port Authority Transit
|blank6_name = Rail
|blank6_info = Penn Station
Capitol Limited, Pennsylvanian
|website = (PittsburghPA.gov )
|footnotes =
Pittsburgh ( ) is the second-largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with a population of 305,842 and the county seat of Allegheny County. Only Philadelphia is larger. The Combined Statistical Area (CSA) population of 2,659,937 is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia and the 20th-largest in the U.S. Pittsburgh is known as both "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses, as well as "the City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges. The city features 30 skyscrapers, 2 inclines, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the source of the Ohio River at the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers. This vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest through the mineral-rich Alleghenies made the area coveted by the French and British Empires, Virginia, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders and media networks.
Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in aluminum, glass, shipbuilding, petroleum, foods, sports, transportation, computing, autos, and electronics. For much of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment, second to New York in bank assets and with the most U.S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters of Gulf Oil, Sunbeam, Rockwell and Westinghouse moved. This heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, parks, research centers, libraries, a diverse cultural district and the most bars per capita in the U.S.〔
In 2015, Pittsburgh was named on a list of the "eleven most livable cities in the world."
Google, Apple, Bosch, Disney, Uber, Intel and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls, with the area serving as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, robotics, energy research and the nuclear navy. The area is home to 68 colleges and universities including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's fifth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, and six of the top 300 US law firms make their global headquarters in the Pittsburgh area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, Nova, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.S. job growth.
The region is a hub for both Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, sustainable energy, and energy extraction.〔
== History ==

Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham. As Forbes was a Scotsman, historians speculate that the pronunciation of the name was originally intended to be or (similar to Edinburgh). Pittsburgh was incorporated as a township in 1771 and as a borough on April 22, 1794 with the following Act:
"Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be...erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=How to Spell Pittsburgh )
Pittsburgh is one of the few American cities to be spelled with an ''h'' at the end of a ''burg'' suffix.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Most Misspelled Cities in America )〕 From 1890 to 1911 the city's "h" was removed but, after a public campaign, it was officially restored by the United States Board on Geographic Names.〔
The area of the Ohio headwaters was inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans.〔(Solon J. Buck, Elizabeth Buck, ''The Planting of Civilization in Western Pennsylvania'' ), 1976, Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.〕 The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers, primarily Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, and later that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Pittsburgh Chronology )
In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched a serious expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers.〔 During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off. The French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims. The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne. The British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. It was not until General John Forbes' 1758 march that the French surrendered the forks. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after British Secretary of State and soon-to-be Prime Minister William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough".
During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable for being the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare, as Lord Jeffrey Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort. Unlike the Europeans, the Native Americans had no acquired immunity to the new disease. As smallpox spread into other areas and infected other tribes, it killed between 400,000–500,000 (possibly up to 1.5 million) Native Americans.
The 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix allowed the Penns to purchase the modern region from the Iroquois. A 1769 survey of the land situated between the two rivers referenced the future city as the "Manor of Pittsburgh". Both the Colony of Virginia and the Province of Pennsylvania claimed the region until 1780 when it was agreed to extend the Mason–Dixon line westward, placing Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. On March 8, 1771 Bedford County, Pennsylvania was created to govern the frontier. On April 16, 1771, the city's first civilian local government was created with Pitt Township.〔(Full text of "The county court for the district of West Augusta, Virginia, held at Augusta town, near Washington, Pennsylvania, 1776–1777" ). Archive.org. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.〕〔(Google Drive Viewer ). Docs.google.com. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.〕 William Teagarden was the first constable, and William Troop was the first clerk.〔(Constables for 1771 ). Pa-roots.org (December 9, 2005). Retrieved on 2013-07-17.〕
Following the American Revolution, the village of Pittsburgh continued to grow. One of its earliest industries was boat building for settlers of the Ohio Country. In 1784, Thomas Viceroy completed a town plan which was approved by the Penn family attorney. Pittsburgh became a possession of Pennsylvania in 1785. The following year, the ''Pittsburgh Post-Gazette'' was started, and in 1787, the Pittsburgh Academy was chartered. The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 saw unrest and federal troops. By 1797, glass began to be manufactured in the city, while the population grew to around 1,400. American settlement began either via routes over the Appalachian Mountains or through the waterways of the Great Lakes. Fort Pitt (now Pittsburgh) at the source of the Ohio River became the main base for settlers moving into the Midwest.
The War of 1812 cut off the supply of British goods, stimulating American industry. By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing significant quantities of iron, brass, tin, and glass. On March 18, 1816, the 46-year-old local government became a city. In the 1830s, many Welsh people from the Merthyr steelworks immigrated to the city following the aftermath of the Merthyr Rising. By the 1840s, Pittsburgh was one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains, before the Great Fire of Pittsburgh destroyed over a thousand buildings in 1845. The city rebuilt and by 1857, Pittsburgh's 1,000 factories were consuming 22 million coal bushels yearly.
The American Civil War boosted the city's economy with increased iron and armament demand. Andrew Carnegie began steel production in 1875 at the Edgar Thomson Steel Works in North Braddock, Pennsylvania, which evolved into the Carnegie Steel Company.
In 1901, Carnegie merged several companies into U.S. Steel. By 1911, Pittsburgh was the nation's 8th-largest city, accounting for between a third and a half of national steel output. The city's population swelled to over a half million with European immigration via Ellis Island. By 1940, non-Hispanic whites were 90.6% of the city's population.〔(【引用サイトリンク】publisher=U.S. Census Bureau )〕 Pittsburgh was a main destination of the African-American Great Migration,〔"(Kids' Corner: 1910–30 saw huge black migration )". ''Pittsburgh Post-Gazette''. February 18, 2003.〕 with 95% percent becoming unskilled steel workers.〔Lubove, Roy, ed. Pittsburgh. New York: New Viewpoints, 1976. Print.〕 World War II saw area mills operate 24 hours a day to produce 95 million tons of steel,〔 but also recorded the highest levels of air pollution in its almost century of industry. The city's reputation as the "arsenal of democracy"〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=The Pittsburgh Press - Google News Archive Search )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=The Way We Were )〕 was being overshadowed by James Parton's 1868 observation of Pittsburgh being "hell with the lid off."
Following the war, the city launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the "Renaissance." This much-acclaimed effort was followed by the "Renaissance II" project in 1977 and focusing on cultural and neighborhood development. The industrial base continued to expand through the 1970s, but beginning in the early 1980s both the area's steel and electronics industries imploded, with massive layoffs from mill and plant closures.〔
In the latter 20th century, the area shifted its economic base to education, tourism, and services, largely based on healthcare/medicine, finance, and high technology such as robotics. Although Pittsburgh successfully shifted its economy and remained viable, the city's population never rebounded to its industrial-era highs. While 680,000 people lived in the city proper in 1950, a combination of suburbanization and economic turbulence caused a decrease in city population.
During the late 2000s recession, Pittsburgh was economically strong, adding jobs when most cities were losing them, and one of the few cities in the United States to see housing property values rise. Between 2006 and 2011, the Pittsburgh MSA experienced over 10% appreciation in housing prices—the highest appreciation of the largest 25 MSAs in the United States as 22 of the top 25 MSAs saw a depreciation of housing values. Pittsburgh's story of economic regeneration was the inspiration for President Barack Obama to host the 2009 G-20 Pittsburgh summit.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

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