Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating algorithmic processes—e.g. through computers. Computing includes designing, developing and building hardware and software systems; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific research on and with computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; and creating and using communications and entertainment media. The field of computing includes computer engineering, software engineering, computer science, information systems, and information technology.
The ACM ''Computing Curricula 2005''〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.acm.org/education/curric_vols/CC2005-March06Final.pdf )〕 defined "computing" as follows:
"In a general way, we can define computing to mean any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers. Thus, computing includes designing and building hardware and software systems for a wide range of purposes; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific studies using computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; creating and using communications and entertainment media; finding and gathering information relevant to any particular purpose, and so on. The list is virtually endless, and the possibilities are vast."
and it defines five sub-disciplines of the ''computing'' field: Computer Science, Computer Engineering, Information Systems, Information Technology, and Software Engineering.
However, ''Computing Curricula 2005''〔 also recognizes that the meaning of "computing" depends on the context:
''Computing also has other meanings that are more specific, based on the context in which the term is used. For example, an information systems specialist will view computing somewhat differently from a software engineer. Regardless of the context, doing computing well can be complicated and difficult. Because society needs people to do computing well, we must think of computing not only as a profession but also as a discipline.''
The term "computing" has sometimes been narrowly defined, as in a 1989 ACM report on ''Computing as a Discipline'':
''The discipline of computing is the systematic study of algorithmic
The term "computing" is also synonymous with counting and calculating. In earlier times, it was used in reference to the action performed by mechanical computing machines, and before that, to human computers.
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