Words near each other
・ Ibkilwit Lava Bed
・ Ibl al-Saqi
・ IBLA Australia season 2000-01
・ IBLA International Competition
・ IBLA Internationals season 2000-01
・ Iblard Jikan
・ IBlast Moki
・ Ible
・ Iblees Ki Majlis-e-Shura
・ Iblin
・ Iblin, Syria
・ Iblis (disambiguation)
・ Ibliss
・ Iblul-Il
・ IBM (atoms)
・ IBM (disambiguation)
・ IBM 1009
・ IBM 101
・ IBM 1013
・ IBM 1030
・ IBM 1050
・ IBM 1130
・ IBM 1132
・ IBM 1360
・ IBM 1400 series
・ IBM 1401
・ IBM 1401 Symbolic Programming System
・ IBM 1401, A User's Manual

Dictionary Lists
翻訳と辞書 辞書検索 [ 開発暫定版 ]
スポンサード リンク

IBM : ウィキペディア英語版

|equity = US$ 11.868 billion (2014)〔
|num_employees = 379,592 (2014)〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.ibm.com/investor/att/pdf/IBM_Annual_Report_2014.pdf )
|divisions = Hardware, Services, Software
|subsidiaries = Victor Entertainment
|homepage =
}}International Business Machines Corporation (commonly referred to as IBM) is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation, with headquarters in Armonk, New York. IBM manufactures and markets computer hardware, middleware and software, and offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology.
The company originated in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) through the consolidation of The Tabulating Machine Company, the International Time Recording Company, the Computing Scale Company and the Bundy Manufacturing Company. CTR was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924, a name which Thomas J. Watson first used for a CTR Canadian subsidiary.〔Belden (1962) p.125〕 The initialism IBM followed. Securities analysts nicknamed the company Big Blue for its size and common use of the color in products, packaging and logo.
In 2012, ''Fortune'' ranked IBM the second largest U.S. firm in terms of number of employees (435,000 worldwide), the fourth largest in terms of market capitalization, the ninth most profitable, and the nineteenth largest firm in terms of revenue. Globally, the company was ranked the 31st largest in terms of revenue by ''Forbes'' for 2011. Other rankings for 2011/2012 include №1 company for leaders (''Fortune''), №1 green company in the U.S. (''Newsweek''), №2 best global brand (''Interbrand''), №2 most respected company (''Barron's''), №5 most admired company (''Fortune''), and №18 most innovative company (''Fast Company'').
IBM has 12 research laboratories worldwide, bundled into IBM Research. the company held the record for most patents generated by a business for 22 consecutive years. Its employees have garnered five Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, ten National Medals of Technology, and five National Medals of Science.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Awards & Achievements )〕 Notable company inventions include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the Universal Product Code (UPC), the financial swap, the Fortran programming language, SABRE airline reservation system, dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), copper wiring in semiconductors, the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) semiconductor manufacturing process, and Watson artificial intelligence.
IBM has constantly evolved since its inception. Over the past decade, it has steadily shifted its business mix by exiting commoditizing markets such as PCs, hard disk drives and DRAMs and focusing on higher-value, more profitable markets such as business intelligence, data analytics, business continuity, security, cloud computing, virtualization and green solutions,〔ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/annualreport/2005/2005_ibm_annual.pdf#page=6〕〔ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/annualreport/2007/2007_ibm_annual.pdf#page=8〕〔ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/annualreport/2008/2008_ibm_annual.pdf#page=12〕 resulting in a higher quality revenue stream and higher profit margins. IBM's operating margin expanded from 16.8% in 2004 to 24.3% in 2013, and net profit margins expanded from 9.0% in 2004 to 16.5% in 2013.〔IBM Annual Report〕
IBM acquired Kenexa (2012) and SPSS (2009) and PwC's consulting business (2002), spinning off companies like printer manufacturer Lexmark (1991), and selling off product lines like its personal computer and x86 server businesses to Lenovo (2005, 2014). In 2014, IBM announced that it would go "fabless" by offloading IBM Micro Electronics semiconductor manufacturing to GlobalFoundries, a leader in advanced technology manufacturing, citing that semiconductor manufacturing is a capital-intensive business which is challenging to operate without scale.〔
〕 This transition had progressed .
On August 6, 2015, IBM announced that it will buy Merge Healthcare Inc for $1 billion.
(詳細はHerman Hollerith patented the Electric Tabulating Machine;〔
〕 and Willard Bundy invented a time clock to record a worker's arrival and departure time on a paper tape in 1889.
On June 16, 1911, their four companies were consolidated in New York State by Charles Ranlett Flint to form the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR).〔(NY Times June 10, 1911 ''Tabulating Concerns Unite: Flint & Co. Bring Four Together with $19,000,000 capital )〕 CTR's business office was in Endicott.〔Certificate of Incorporation of Computer-Tabulating-Recording Co, June 14th, 1911〕 The individual companies owned by CTR continued to operate using their established names until the businesses were integrated in 1933 and the holding company eliminated.〔For example, the last page of (The Inventory Simplified ), published in 1923, states by the "The Tabulating Machine Company - Division of - International Business Machines Corporation.〕 The four companies had 1,300 employees and offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York; Dayton, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; Washington, D.C.; and Toronto, Ontario. They manufactured machinery for sale and lease, ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders, meat and cheese slicers, to tabulators and punched cards.
Thomas J. Watson, Sr., fired from the National Cash Register Company by John Henry Patterson, called on Flint and, in 1914, was offered CTR. Watson joined CTR as ''General Manager'' then, 11 months later, was made ''President'' when court cases relating to his time at NCR were resolved.〔NCR Corporation#Expansion〕 Having learned Patterson's pioneering business practices, Watson proceeded to put the stamp of NCR onto CTR's companies.〔Belden (1962) p.105〕 He implemented sales conventions, "generous sales incentives, a focus on customer service, an insistence on well-groomed, dark-suited salesmen and had an evangelical fervor for instilling company pride and loyalty in every worker".〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Chronological History of IBM, 1910s )〕 His favorite slogan, "THINK", became a mantra for each companies employees.〔 During Watson's first four years, revenues more than doubled to $9 million and the company's operations expanded to Europe, South America, Asia, and Australia.〔 "Watson had never liked the clumsy hyphenated title of the CTR" and chose to replace it with the more expansive title "International Business Machines".〔 First as a name for a 1917 Canadian subsidiary, then as line in advertisements. For example, the McClures magazine, v53, May 1921, has a full page ad with, at the bottom:

International Time Recording Company of New York
Subsidiary of
Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, New York
Makers of
International Business Machines
Finally, February 14, 1924, for CTR itself.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

スポンサード リンク
翻訳と辞書 : 翻訳のためのインターネットリソース

Copyright(C) kotoba.ne.jp 1997-2016. All Rights Reserved.