Pennsylvania , officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a U.S. state located in the North and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States and the Great Lakes region. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. The state borders Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and Ontario, Canada to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east.
Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 6th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The state's five most populous cities are Philadelphia (1,560,297), Pittsburgh (305,801), Allentown (118,577), Erie (100,671), and Reading (89,893). The state capital is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has of coastline along Lake Erie and 〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=NOAA Office of Ocean and Coastal Resources )〕 of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary.
The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States; it was originally founded in 1681 as a result of a royal land grant to William Penn, the son of the state's namesake. It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in this state.
Pennsylvania is north to south and east to west.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Pennsylvania geography )〕 Of a total , are land, are inland waters, and are waters in Lake Erie.〔(2006 Statistical Abstract: Geography & Environment: Land and Land Use )〕 It is the 33rd largest state in the United States.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Pennsylvania Time Zone )〕
Pennsylvania has of coastline along Lake Erie and 〔 of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary.
The boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line (39° 43' N) to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Pennsylvania borders six other states: New York to the north; New Jersey to the east; Delaware to the southeast; Maryland to the south; West Virginia to the southwest, and Ohio to the west. Pennsylvania also shares a water border with the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest across Lake Erie. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean.
It has the cities of Philadelphia, Reading, Lebanon and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, Bethlehem, and Easton in the central east (known as the Lehigh Valley), the tri-cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, and Hazleton in the northeast, and Erie in the northwest. Williamsport serves as the commonwealth's north-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the central region of the commonwealth.
The state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and the Erie Plain.
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