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Vitoria-Gasteiz : ウィキペディア英語版

Vitoria-Gasteiz (〔 Real Academia Española: ''Ortografía de la lengua española''. Madrid: Espasa, 1999. ISBN 978-84-239-9250-8; «Apéndice 3», pages 133–155.〕 (:biˈtoɾja), (バスク語:Gasteiz)〔 Euskaltzaindia: (''Euskera'', LI, 2006, 2 ). ISSN 0210-1564; «150: Arabako herri izendegia», pages 1099–1107.〕 (:ɡas̺teis̻)) is the capital city of the Basque Autonomous Community and of the province of Araba/Álava in northern Spain. It holds the autonomous community's House of Parliament, the headquarters of the Government, and the Lehendakari's (Prime Minister's) official residency. The municipality — which comprises not only the city but also the mainly agricultural lands of 63 villages around — is the largest in the Basque Autonomous Community, with a total area of 276.81 km2 (106.88 sq mi), and it has a population of 242,082 people (2014). The dwellers of Vitoria-Gasteiz are called ''vitorianos'' or ''gasteiztarrak'', while traditionally they are dubbed ''babazorros'' (Basque for 'bean sacks').
Vitoria-Gasteiz is a multicultural city with strengths in the arts, commerce, education, healthcare, architectural conservation, aeronautics, vehicle industry, oenology and gastronomy. It is the first Spanish municipality to be awarded the title of European Green Capital (in 2012) and it is consistently ranked as one of the 5 best places to live in Spain. The old town holds some of the best preserved medieval streets and plazas in the region and it is one of very few cities to hold two Cathedrals. The city also holds well known festivals such as the Azkena rock festival, FesTVal, Vitoria-Gasteiz jazz festival, and the Virgen Blanca Festivities.
Vitoria-Gasteiz's vicinity is home to world-renowned wineries such as Ysios (by Santiago Calatrava) and Marques de Riscal (by Frank Gehry); relevant heritage sites including the Neolithic remains of Aizkomendi, Sorginetxe and La chabola de la Hechicera; Iron Age remains such as the Settlement of Lastra and the Settlement of Buradón; antique remains such as the settlement of La Hoya and the salt valley of Añana; and countless medieval fortresses such as the Tower of Mendoza and the Tower of Varona.
Beethoven dedicated his Opus 91, often called the "Battle of Vitoria" or "Wellington's Victory", to one of the most notorious historical events of the Napoleonic wars; the Battle of Vitoria, in which a Spanish, Portuguese and British army under the command of General the Marquess of Wellington broke the French army and nearly captured Joseph Bonaparte. It was a pivotal point in the Peninsular War eventually leading to the defeat of Bonaparte. A memorial statue can be seen today in Virgen Blanca Square.
== History ==
In 581 AD the Visigoth king Liuvigild founded the city of Victoriacum, trying to emulate the Roman foundations, as a celebration of the victory against the Vascones near what is assumed to be the hill occupied by the primitive village of Gasteiz. This however is not sufficiently proven, and some historians and experts believe that Victoriacum was located not on the site of present-day Vitoria-Gasteiz but nearby. Several possible locations have been proposed, the foremost of which is the late Roman military camp of Iruña-Veleia (cf. J.M. Lacarra). Veleia is located some 11 km north of modern Vitoria, on the banks of the same river. However, modern archeological studies of the site suggest that Veleia was last inhabited c.5th century AD, and archeologists are still to find a 6th-century visigothic resettlement in the site.〔https://books.google.com/books?id=u-X4dkALGsAC&q=Victoriacum#v=onepage&q&f=false〕 Another theory has suggested that Victoriacum was located at the foot of Mount Gorbea where there is a village called Vitoriano; however, there is enough evidence to suggest that Vitoriano is the old city of ''Bitoriano'', which king Liuvigild helped fortify in 574 AD against the neighbouring vasconic tribes.〔https://books.google.com/books?id=u-X4dkALGsAC&lpg=PP1&vq=Victoriaco&pg=PA148#v=onepage&q=Victoriaco&f=false〕 The town of Armentia, nowadays in the outskirts of Vitoria, has also been proposed as a possible location of Victoriacum.〔http://www.euskomedia.org/aunamendi/98647〕 In either case, Victoriacum vanishes from history shortly after its foundation.〔
In 1181, Sancho the Wise, King of Navarre founded the town of ''Nova Victoria'' as a defensive outpost on top of a hill at the site of the previous settlement of Gasteiz. The existence of ''Gasteihiz'', apparently inhabited by vasconic people,〔S. Villimer: ''Vitoria, historia de una ciudad'', p. 160 (Vitoria 1977).〕 can be traced back to the lower Middle Ages; it is certain that by the 11th century, prior to the foundation of ''Nova Victoria'', the settlement was already walled. It is assumed that Sancho the Wise gave the new city its name in memory of the old settlement of Victoriacum, which must had long since been abandoned.〔 In 1199, the town was besieged and captured by the troops of Alfonso VIII of Castile, who annexed the town to the Kingdom of Castile. The town was progressively enlarged and in 1431 it was granted a city charter by King Juan II of Castile. In 1463, it was one of the five founding ''villas'' of the Brotherhood of Álava alongside Sajazarra, Miranda de Ebro, Pancorbo and Salvatierra/Agurain.
The Battle of Vitoria of the Peninsular War occurred near Vitoria-Gasteiz along the river Zadorra on 21 June 1813. An allied British, Portuguese, and Spanish army under General the Marquess of Wellington broke the French army under Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan. The victory assured the eventual end of French control in Spain. There is a monument commemorating this battle in the main square of the city known as the Monument to Independence.
When news came to Vienna in late July of that year, Johann Nepomuk Mälzel commissioned Ludwig van Beethoven to compose a symphony, the op. 91 Wellingtons Sieg oder die Schlacht bei Vittoria (Wellington's Victory, or the Battle of Vitoria) or ''Siegessymphonie''.
Work began on the Institute for Middle Education in 1843, with classes beginning during the 1853–54 academic year. It is now current headquarters of the Basque Parliament and formerly the convent of Santa Clara. The Free University opened in the wake of the revolution of 1868. The University operated from 1869, to just prior to the 1873–1874 term, largely because of the second Carlist War. Chief academics were Ricardo Becerro de Bengoa, Julián Apraiz, Federico Baraibar, and so on. This latter, great Hellenist (1851–1918), was also among the first teachers of Basque in Vitoria-Gasteiz as an off-syllabus subject.
During the Spanish transition to democracy, the Church of St. Francis of Assisi was the scene of the March 3 Killing of 1976 after clashes between police and striking workers. Under the orders of Interior Minister Manuel Fraga, the police stormed on a shooting spree into a packed church into which demonstrators had retreated, resulting in five dead and over 100 wounded.
On 20 May 1980, by decision of the Basque Parliament, Vitoria-Gasteiz became the place of the common institutions of the Basque Autonomous Community.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

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