Words near each other
・ Vitrolero
・ Vitrolles
・ Vitrolles, Bouches-du-Rhône
・ Vitrolles, Hautes-Alpes
・ Vitrolles-en-Luberon
・ Vitronectin
・ Vitrophyre
・ Vitrox Technologies
・ Vitrue, Inc.
・ Vitruvian Man
・ Vitruvian module
・ Vitruvian Pan
・ Vitruvian Park
・ Vitruvian Partners
・ Vitruvian scroll
・ Vitruvius (crater)
・ Vitruvius Vaccus
・ Vitry
・ Vitry-aux-Loges
・ Vitry-Brienne Air Base
・ Vitry-en-Artois
・ Vitry-En-Artois Airport
・ Vitry-en-Charollais
・ Vitry-en-Montagne
・ Vitry-en-Perthois
・ Vitry-la-Ville
・ Vitry-Laché
・ Vitry-le-Croisé
・ Vitry-le-François

Dictionary Lists
翻訳と辞書 辞書検索 [ 開発暫定版 ]
スポンサード リンク

Vitruvius : ウィキペディア英語版

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c. 80–70 BC, died after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled ''De architectura''.
By his own description〔De Arch. Book 1, preface. section 2〕 Vitruvius served as an artilleryman, the third class of arms in the military offices. He probably served as a senior officer of artillery in charge of ''doctores ballistarum'' (artillery experts) and ''libratores'' who actually operated the machines.〔Yann Le Bohec "The Imperial Roman Army" Routledge, pg 49 2000 ISBN 0-415-22295-8 ()〕
==Life and career==

Little is known about Vitruvius' life. Most inferences about him are extracted from his only surviving work ''De Architectura''. His first name ''Marcus'' and his cognomen ''Pollio'' are uncertain. He was possibly a ''praefectus fabrum'' during military service or ''praefect architectus armamentarius'' of the ''apparitor'' status group. Cetius Faventinus speaks of "Vitruvius Polio aliique auctores" in his epitome; it is possible that the cognomen derives from this mention by Cetius, meaning Vitruvius, Polio, and others – further confusing the cognomen, an inscription in Verona names ''Lucius Vitruvius Cordo'' and an inscription from Thilbilis, North Africa (near Guelma〔History of ancient North Africa: CONFLICTS AND BATTLES OF THE HUMANITY, Ancient North Africa until the Roman conquest, last assessed 10/09/2011. http://miltiade.pagesperso-orange.fr/GB/Ancient_North_Africa.htm〕) names ''Marcus Vitruvius Mamurra''. From this inscription the archaeologist Dr. G. Q. Giglioli nearly concludes that Vitruvius and Mamurra are from the same family; his argument is presented by Ettore Pais:
The Roman military officer Mamurra also served as ''praefectus fabrum'' in Hispania, Gaul and Pontus under Julius Caesar. Paul Thielscher moved the conclusions of Dr. Giglioli further and concluded that these two men are the same.〔Vitruvius Pollio http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Vitruvius.aspx〕 There are inconsistencies with this conclusion, such as there is no mention of Caesar's invasions of Britain in ''De Architectura'', nor of other things with which Mamurra was associated, such as equestrian military practices, and a love for nepotism and personal wealth. Additionally, Caesar received a letter that can be inferred to have news of Mamurra's death, whereas Vitruvius dedicated ''De Architectura'' to the emperor Augustus.
He appears to be known to Pliny the Elder through his description of constructing mosaics in the ''Naturalis Historia''.〔

Although he is not actually named in that passage, he does appear in ''Naturalis Historia'' 1 (the table of contents). Frontinus refers to "Vitruvius the architect" in his late 1st-century work ''De aquaeductu''.
Likely born a free Roman citizen, by his own account, Vitruvius served the Roman army under Caesar with the otherwise poorly identified Marcus Aurelius, Publius Minidius, and Gnaeus Cornelius. These names vary depending on the edition of ''De architectura''. Publius Minidius is also written as Publius Numidicus and Publius Numidius, speculated as the same Publius Numisius inscribed on the Roman Theatre at Heraclea.〔Niccolò Marcello Venuti ''Description of the First Discoveries of the Ancient City of Heraclea, Found Near Portici A Country Palace Belonging to the King of the Two Sicilies'' published by R. Baldwin, translated by Wickes Skurray, 1750. p62 ()〕
As an army engineer he specialized in the construction of ''ballista'' and ''scorpio'' artillery war machines for sieges. It is speculated that Vitruvius served with Caesar's chief engineer Lucius Cornelius Balbus.〔

The locations where he served can be reconstructed from, for example, descriptions of the building methods of various "foreign tribes". Although he describes places throughout ''De Architectura'', he does not say he was present. His service likely included north Africa, Hispania, Gaul (including Aquitaine) and Pontus.
To place the role of Vitruvius the military engineer in context, a description of "The Prefect of the camp" or army engineer is quoted here as given by Flavius Vegetius Renatus in ''The Military Institutions of the Romans'':
The Prefect of the camp, though inferior in rank to the (), had a post of no small importance. The position of the camp, the direction of the entrenchments, the inspection of the tents or huts of the soldiers and the baggage were comprehended in his province. His authority extended over the sick, and the physicians who had the care of them; and he regulated the expenses relative thereto. He had the charge of providing carriages, bathhouses and the proper tools for sawing and cutting wood, digging trenches, raising parapets, sinking wells and bringing water into the camp. He likewise had the care of furnishing the troops with wood and straw, as well as the rams, ''onagri,'' ''balistae'' and all the other engines of war under his direction. This post was always conferred on an officer of great skill, experience and long service, and who consequently was capable of instructing others in those branches of the profession in which he had distinguished himself.〔Flavius Vegetius Renatus ''The Military Institutions of the Romans'' Translated from the Latin by Lieutenant John Clarke, Text written in 390 BC. British translation published in 1767. Copyright Expired, http://www.digitalattic.org/home/war/vegetius/〕

At various locations described by Vitruvius, battles and sieges occurred. He is the only source for the siege of Larignum in 56 BC.〔Planning the twentieth-century American city By Mary Corbin Sies, Christopher Silver, JHU Press, 1996, page 42. http://books.google.com/books?id=TUpLvJrKc64C&lpg=PA42&dq=battle%20of%20Larignum&pg=PA42#v=onepage&q=battle%20of%20Larignum&f=false〕 Of the battlegrounds of the Gallic War there are references to: the siege and massacre of the 40,000 residents at Avaricum in 52 BC; Vercingetorix commented that "the Romans did not conquer by valor nor in the field, but by a kind of art and skill in assault, with which they () themselves were unacquainted."〔Caesar, ''De bello Gallico'' (7.29 )〕 The broken siege at Gergovia in 52 BC. The circumvallation and Battle of Alesia in 52 BC; the women and children of the encircled city were evicted to conserve food, where they starved to death between the opposing walls of the defenders and besiegers. And the siege of Uxellodunum in 51 BC. These are all sieges of large Gallic ''oppida''. Of the sites involved in Caesar's civil war, we find the Siege of Massilia in 49 BC,〔Vitruvius mentions Massilia several times, and the siege itself in ''Book X''.〕 the Battle of Dyrrhachium of 48 BC (modern Albania), the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC (Hellas – Greece), the Battle of Zela of 47 BC (modern Turkey) and the Battle of Thapsus in 46 BC in Caesar's African campaign. A legion that fits the same sequence of locations is the Legio VI Ferrata, of which ''ballista'' would be an auxiliary unit.
Mainly known for his writings, Vitruvius was himself an architect. In Roman times architecture was a broader subject than at present including the modern fields of architecture, construction management, construction engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, materials engineering, mechanical engineering, military engineering and urban planning;〔(The "Vitruvius Project" at Carnegie Mellon University, Computer Science Department ) This software engineering project sees itself in the Vitruvian tradition. Accessed August 2008〕 architectural engineers consider him the first of their discipline, a specialization previously known as technical architecture. Frontinus mentions him in connection with the standard sizes of pipes.〔(''De Aquis'' ), I.25 ebook of work also known as ''De aquaeductu'', accessed August 2008〕 He is often credited as father of architectural acoustics for describing the technique of ''echeas'' placement in theaters. The only building, however, that we know Vitruvius to have worked on is one he tells us about,〔((''De Arch.'', Book V.i.6) ) but with link to English translation, accessed August 2008〕 a ''basilica'' completed in 19 BC.〔Fausto Pugnaloni and Paolo Clini "Vitruvius Basilica in Fano, Italy, journey through the virtual space of the reconstructed memory" GISdevelopment.net last accessed 3/8/2008 ()〕 It was built at Fanum Fortunae, now the modern town of Fano. The ''Basilica di Fano'' (to give the building its Italian name) has disappeared so completely that its very site is a matter of conjecture, although various attempts have been made to visualise it.〔P. Clini "VITRUVIUS’ BASILICA AT FANO: THE DRAWINGS OF A LOST BUILDING FROM DE ARCHITECTURA LIBRI DECEM" The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXIV, Part 5/W12 pp121 – 126 2002 ()〕 The early Christian practice of converting Roman ''basilicae'' (public buildings) into cathedrals implies the ''basilica'' may be incorporated into the cathedral located in Fano.
In later years the emperor Augustus, through his sister Octavia Minor, sponsored Vitruvius, entitling him with what may have been a pension to guarantee financial independence.〔 Whether ''De architectura'' was written by one author or is a compilation completed by subsequent librarians and copyists, remains an open question. The date of his death is unknown, which suggests that he had enjoyed only little popularity during his lifetime.
Gerolamo Cardano, in his 16th book ''De subtilitate rerum'', ranks Vitruvius as one of the 12 persons whom he supposes to have excelled all men in the force of genius and invention; and would not have scrupled to have given him the first place, if it could be imagined that he had delivered nothing but his own discoveries.〔Charles Hutton, (''Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary'' (1795) )〕

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

スポンサード リンク
翻訳と辞書 : 翻訳のためのインターネットリソース

Copyright(C) kotoba.ne.jp 1997-2016. All Rights Reserved.