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・ Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 1970
・ Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 1971
・ Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 1972
・ Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 1973
・ Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 1974
・ Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 1975
・ Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 1976
・ Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 1977
・ Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 1978
・ Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 1979
・ Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 1980
・ Spaichingen
・ Spaici River
・ Spaids v. Cooley
・ Spailpín
・ Spain (Auden)
・ Spain (band)
・ Spain (Between the Trees album)
・ Spain (disambiguation)
・ Spain (European Parliament constituency)
・ Spain (horse)
・ Spain (instrumental)
・ Spain (Michel Camilo & Tomatito album)
・ Spain (surname)
・ Spain 12–1 Malta
・ Spain Again
・ Spain and the World
・ Spain and World War II
・ Spain at the 1900 Summer Olympics

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Spain : ウィキペディア英語版

| common_name = Spain
| image_flag = Flag of Spain.svg
| image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg
| image_map = EU-Spain.svg
| map_caption =
| image_map2 = Spain-Location-Map(2013)-UNOCHA-no-logo.png
| national_motto =

| national_anthem =

File:Marcha Real-Royal March by US Navy Band.ogg

| languages_type = Official language

| languages = Spanish
| languages2_type = Recognised regional
| languages2 =
| ethnic_groups =
| ethnic_groups_year = 2015
| demonym =
| capital = Madrid
| latd = 40 |latm = 26 |latNS = N |longd = 3 |longm= 42 |longEW = W
| largest_city = capital
| government_type = Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
| leader_title1 = Monarch
| leader_name1 = Felipe VI
| leader_title2 = Prime Minister
| leader_name2 = Mariano Rajoy
| legislature = Cortes Generales
| upper_house = Senate
| lower_house = Congress of Deputies
| sovereignty_type = Formation
| established_event2 = Dynastic
| established_date2 = 1479
| established_event3 = ''De facto''
| established_date3 = 1516
| established_event4 = ''De jure''
| established_date4 = 1715
| established_event5 = First constitution
| established_date5 = 1812
| established_event6 =
| established_date6 = 1978
| established_event7 =
| established_date7 = 1986
| EUseats = 54
| area_km2 = 505,990〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.ine.es/prodyser/pubweb/anuario08/anu08_01entor.pdf )
| area_sq_mi = 195,364
| area_rank = 51st
| area_magnitude = 1 E11
| percent_water = 1.04
| population_estimate = 46,439,864〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Population Figures at 1 January 2015 )
| population_estimate_year = 2015
| population_estimate_rank = 29th
| population_census = 46,815,916〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Censos de Población y Viviendas de 2011 )
| population_census_year = 2011
| population_density_km2 = 92
| population_density_sq_mi = 240
| population_density_rank = 112th
| GDP_PPP_year = 2015
| GDP_PPP_rank = 16th
| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $34,899〔
| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 33rd
| GDP_nominal =
| GDP_nominal_rank = 14th
| GDP_nominal_year = 2015
| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $26,517〔
| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 30th
| Gini_year = 2013
| Gini_change = 32
| Gini = 33.7
| Gini_ref = 〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_di12 )
| HDI_year = 2013
| HDI_change = steady
| HDI = 0.869
| HDI_ref =
| HDI_rank = 27th
| currency = Euro ()
| currency_code = EUR
| time_zone = CET
| utc_offset = +1
| time_zone_DST = CEST
| utc_offset_DST = +2
| date_format = dd/mm/yyyy
| drives_on = right
| calling_code = +34
| iso3166code = ES
| cctld = .es
Spain (; (スペイン語:España) ), officially the Kingdom of Spain (), is a sovereign state largely located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe, with a small section of its territory located on the African continent. Its mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean. Along with France and Morocco, it is one of only three countries to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. Extending to , the Portugal–Spain border is the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union.
Spanish territory also includes two archipelagos; the Balearic Islands, in the Mediterranean Sea, and the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean off the African coast; two major exclaves, Ceuta and Melilla, in continental North Africa; and the islands and ''peñones'' (rocks) of Alborán, Alhucemas, Chafarinas and Vélez de la Gomera. With an area of , Spain is the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in Europe. By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union.
Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named ''Hispania''. In the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and later by the Moors. Spain emerged as a unified country in the 15th century, following the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs and the completion of the centuries-long reconquest, or ''Reconquista'', of the peninsula from the Moors in 1492. In the early modern period, Spain became one of history's first global colonial empires, leaving a vast cultural and linguistic legacy that includes over 500 million Spanish speakers, making Spanish the world's second most spoken first language.
Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a parliamentary government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a middle power and a developed country with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the Council of Europe (CoE), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO) and many other international organisations.
== Etymology ==
The origins of the Roman name ''Hispania'', from which the modern name ''España'' was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence. Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses:
The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word ''Hispania'' evolved from the Iberian word ''Hispalis'', meaning "city of the western world".
Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term ''span'' is the Phoenician word ''spy'', meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, ''i-spn-ya'' would mean "the land where metals are forged".〔#Linch, John (director), Fernández Castro, María Cruz (del segundo tomo), Historia de España, El País, volumen II, La península Ibérica en época prerromana, p. 40. Dossier. La etimología de España; ¿tierra de conejos?, ISBN 978-84-9815-764-2〕 It may be a derivation of the Phoenician ''I-Shpania'', meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean; Roman coins struck in the region from the reign of Hadrian show a female figure with a rabbit at her feet, and Strabo called it the "land of the rabbits".
''Hispania'' may derive from the poetic use of the term ''Hesperia'', reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (''Hesperia'', ''Ἑσπερία'' in Greek) and Spain, being still further west, as ''Hesperia ultima''.
There is the claim that "Hispania" derives from the Basque word ''Ezpanna'' meaning "edge" or "border", another reference to the fact that the Iberian Peninsula constitutes the southwest corner of the European continent.〔
Two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abrabanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had been given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of ''España'' (Spain) took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c. 350 BCE.〔Abrabanel, ''Commentary on the First Prophets'' (''Pirush Al Nevi'im Rishonim''), end of II Kings, pp. 680-681, Jerusalem 1955 (Hebrew). See also Shelomo (also spelled Sholomo, Solomon or Salomón) ibn Verga, ''Shevet Yehudah'', pp. 6b-7a, Lemberg 1846 (Hebrew)〕
== History ==
(詳細はIberians, Basques and Celts. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came under the rule of the Roman Empire. During the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process that took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas. A global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries.

Continued wars and other problems eventually led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and left the country politically unstable. Prior to the Second World War, Spain suffered a devastating civil war and came under the rule of an authoritarian government, which oversaw a period of stagnation that was followed by a surge in the growth of the economy. Eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

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