Words near each other
・ Russet-mantled softtail
・ Russet-tailed thrush
・ Russet-throated puffbird
・ Russet-winged schiffornis
・ Russet-winged spadebill
・ Russett
・ Russett, Maryland
・ Russett, Oklahoma
・ Russey Keo District
・ Russfin Airport
・ Russh
・ Russi
・ Russi Karanjia
・ Russi Mody
・ Russi Taylor
・ Russia (disambiguation)
・ Russia (horse)
・ Russia (USSR) vs Rest of the World
・ Russia 2018 FIFA World Cup bid
・ Russia 88
・ Russia Aflame
・ Russia and the United Nations
・ Russia and weapons of mass destruction
・ Russia at major beauty pageants
・ Russia at the 1994 Winter Olympics
・ Russia at the 1996 Summer Olympics
・ Russia at the 1996 Summer Paralympics
・ Russia at the 1998 Winter Olympics
・ Russia at the 2000 Summer Olympics

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Russia : ウィキペディア英語版

|ethnic_groups_year = 2010〔
|demonym = Russian
|government_type = Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic
|leader_title1 = President
|leader_name1 = Vladimir Putin
|leader_title2 = Prime Minister
|leader_name2 = Dmitry Medvedev
|leader_title3 = Chairwoman of the Federation Council
|leader_name3 = Valentina Matviyenko
|leader_title4 = Chairman of the State Duma
|leader_name4 = Sergey Naryshkin
|legislature = Federal Assembly
|upper_house = Federation Council
|lower_house = State Duma
|sovereignty_type = Formation
|established_event1 = Arrival of Rurik, considered as a foundation event by the Russian authorities〔(Указ Президента РФ "О праздновании 1150-летия зарождения российской государственности" ) 〕
|established_date1 = 862
|established_event2 = Kievan Rus'
|established_date2 = 882
|established_event3 = Grand Duchy of Moscow
|established_date3 = 1283
|established_event4 = Tsardom of Russia
|established_date4 = 16 January 1547
|established_event5 = Russian Empire
|established_date5 = 22 October 1721
|established_event6 = Russian SFSR
|established_date6 = 6 November 1917
|established_event7 = Soviet Union
|established_date7 = 10 December 1922
|established_event8 = Russian Federation
|established_date8 = 25 December 1991
|established_event9 = Adoption of the current Constitution of Russia
|established_date9 = 12 December 1993
|area_km2 = 17,098,242 (Crimea not included)
|area_sq_mi = 6,592,800 (Crimea not included)
|area_rank = 1st
|area_magnitude = 1 E13
|percent_water = 13 
|population_estimate = 143,975,923〔 (Crimea not included)
|population_estimate_year = 2015
|population_estimate_rank = 9th
|population_density_km2 = 8.4
|population_density_sq_mi = 21.5
|population_density_rank = 217th
|GDP_PPP_year = 2015
|GDP_PPP = $3.473 trillion〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Report for Selected Countries and Subjects )
|GDP_PPP_rank = 6th
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $23,744〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: Russia )
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 53rd
|GDP_nominal = $1.235 trillion〔〔http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2015/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=64&pr.y=11&sy=2013&ey=2020&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=922&s=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CPPPSH%2CNGDP_FY&grp=0&a=〕
|GDP_nominal_rank = 15th
|GDP_nominal_year = 2015
|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $8,447〔
|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 74th
|Gini_year = 2013
|Gini_change =
|Gini = 40.1
|Gini_ref =
|Gini_rank = 83rd
|HDI_year = 2013
|HDI_change = steady
|HDI = 0.778
|HDI_ref =
|HDI_rank = 57th
|currency = Russian ruble (₽)
|currency_code = RUB
|utc_offset = +2 to +12
|date_format = dd.mm.yyyy
|drives_on = right
|calling_code = +7
|cctld =
|footnote_a = The Crimean Peninsula is recognized as territory of Ukraine by most of the international community, but is de facto administered by Russia.
Russia (; ), also officially known as the Russian Federation〔"The names Russian Federation and Russia shall be equal". (【引用サイトリンク】work=(Article 1) )〕 (), is a country in northern Eurasia.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Russia )〕 It is a federal semi-presidential republic. At , Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Russia is also the world's ninth most populous country with nearly 144 million people in November 2014.〔
Extending across the entirety of northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait.
The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Russia )〕 Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire,〔 beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century.〔Michael Prawdin and Gérard Chaliand, ''The Mongol Empire: Its Rise and Legacy'' (2005) pp. 512–550〕
The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde, and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland in Europe to Alaska in North America.
Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union abbreviated to USSR, the world's first constitutionally socialist state and a recognized world superpower, and a rival to the Unites States which played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II.〔Rozhnov, Konstantin, "(Who won World War II? )". BBC.〕 The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, and the first man in space. By the end of 1990, USSR/Soviet Union had the world’s second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. 〔Scott and Scott (1979) p. 305〕 Following the partition of the Soviet Union in 1991, fourteen Independent republic nations emerged from the USSR (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia,Georgia, Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan,Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan). The largest, most populous, and most economically developed republic, the Soviet Russia part of the USSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality (the sole successor state) of the Soviet Union.〔
The Russian economy ranks as the tenth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Report for Selected Countries and Subjects )〕 Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources, the largest reserves in the world,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Commission of the Russian Federation for UNESCO: Panorama of Russia )〕 have made it one of the largest producers of oil and natural gas globally.〔〔 The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.〔 Russia was the world's second biggest exporter of major arms in 2010-14, according to SIPRI data.
According to the Fragile States Index of 2015 by Fund for Peace educational institution, Russia is in the 65th place in the "High Warning" section. High values of group grievance, human rights, security apparatus and factionalized elites indicators are major contributors to the overall index of Russia.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://fsi.fundforpeace.org/rankings-2015 )
Russia is a great power and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the 5 members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The name ''Russia'' is derived from Rus, a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля" (russkaya zemlya), which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as ''Kievan Rus by modern historiography. The name ''Rus'' itself comes from Rus people, a group of Varangians (possibly Swedish Vikings)〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Online Etymology Dictionary )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Rus – definition of Rus by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia )〕 who founded the state of Rus (Русь).
An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия (Rossiya), comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus', Ρωσσία ''Rossía''—spelt Ρωσία (''Rosía'' ) in Modern Greek.
The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is "Russians".


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