| Rifa'a al-Tahtawi ： ウィキペディア英語版|
Rifa'a al-Tahtawi (also spelt Tahtawy; (アラビア語:رفاعة رافع الطهطاوي) / ALA-LC: ''Rifā‘ah Rāf‘i al-Ṭahṭāwī''; 1801–1873) was an Egyptian writer, teacher, translator, Egyptologist and renaissance intellectual. Tahtawi was among the first Egyptian scholars to write about Western cultures in an attempt to bring about a reconciliation and an understanding between Islamic and Christian civilizations. He founded the School of Languages in 1835 and was influential in the development of science, law, literature and Egyptology in 19th-century Egypt. His work influenced that of many later scholars including Muhammad Abduh.
Tahtawi was born in 1801 in the village of Tahta, Sohag, the same year the French troops evacuated Egypt. He was an Azharite recommended by his teacher and mentor Hassan El-Attar to be the chaplain of a group of students Mohammed Ali was sending to Paris in 1826. Many student missions from Egypt went to Europe in the early 19th century to study arts and sciences at European universities and acquire technical skills such as printing, shipbuilding and modern military techniques. According to his memoir ''Rihla'' (''Journey to Paris''), Tahtawi studied ethics, social and political philosophy, and mathematics and geometry. He read works by Condillac, Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu and Bézout among others during his séjour in France.〔Vatikiotis, p. 113〕
In 1831, Tahtawi returned home to be part of the statewide effort to modernize the Egyptian infrastructure and education. He undertook a career in writing and translation, and founded the School of Languages in 1835. The School of Languages graduated the earliest modern Egyptian intellectual milieu, which formed the basis of the emerging grassroots mobilization against British colonialism in Egypt. Three of his published volumes were works of political and moral philosophy. They introduced his Egyptian audience to Enlightenment ideas such as secular authority and political rights and liberty; his ideas regarding how a modern civilized society ought to be and what constituted by extension a civilized or "good Egyptian"; and his ideas on public interest and public good.〔Vatikiotis, p. 115-16〕 Tahtawi's work was the first effort in what became an Egyptian renaissance (''nahda'') that flourished in the years between 1860–1940.〔Vatikiotis, p. 116〕
He died in Cairo in 1873.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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