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Quran : ウィキペディア英語版

The Quran ( ; (アラビア語:القرآن) ', literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God ((アラビア語:الله), ''Allah''). It is widely regarded as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language.〔Alan Jones, The Koran, London 1994, ISBN 1842126091, opening page.〕〔Arthur Arberry, The Koran Interpreted, London 1956, ISBN 0684825074, p. x.〕 Quranic chapters are called suras and verses, ayahs.
Muslims believe the Quran was verbally revealed by God to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel (''Jibril''), gradually over a period of approximately 23 years, beginning on 22 December 609 CE,〔
*''Chronology of Prophetic Events'', Fazlur Rehman Shaikh (2001) p. 50 Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd.
*(Quran 17:105 )〕 when Muhammad was 40, and concluding in 632, the year of his death.〔〔''Living Religions: An Encyclopaedia of the World's Faiths'', Mary Pat Fisher, 1997, page 338, I.B. Tauris Publishers.〕 Muslims regard the Quran as the most important miracle of Muhammad, a proof of his prophethood, and the culmination of a series of divine messages that started with the messages revealed to Adam and ended with Muhammad. The word "Quran" is mentioned some 70 times in the text of Quran, though different names and words are also said to be references to the Quran.
According to the traditional narrative, several companions of Muhammad served as scribes and were responsible for writing down the revelations.〔 Shortly after Muhammad's death, the Quran was compiled by his companions who wrote down and memorized parts of it.〔 These codices had differences that motivated the Caliph Uthman to establish a standard version now known as Uthman's codex, which is generally considered the archetype of the Quran we have today. However, the existence of variant readings, with mostly minor differences in meaning.〔Donner, Fred, "The historical context" in McAuliffe, J. D. (ed.), ''The Cambridge Companion to the Qur'ān'' (Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 31–33.〕
The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Jewish and Christian scriptures. It summarizes some, dwells at length on others and, in some cases, presents alternative accounts and interpretations of events.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Tanzil - Quran Navigator - القرآن الكريم )〕 The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance. It sometimes offers detailed accounts of specific historical events, and it often emphasizes the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence.〔Nasr (2003), p. 42〕 The Quran is used along with the ''hadith'' to interpret ''sharia'' law.〔''Handbook of Islamic Marketing'', Page 38, G. Rice - 2011〕 During prayers, the Quran is recited only in Arabic.〔Literacy and Development: Ethnographic Perspectives - Page 193, Brian V Street - 2001〕
Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a ''hafiz''. Some Muslims read Quranic ayah (verse) with elocution, which is often called ''tajwid''. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims typically complete the recitation of the whole Quran during ''tarawih'' prayers. In order to extrapolate the meaning of a particular Quranic verse, most Muslims rely on the ''tafsir''.〔Apocalypse And/or Metamorphosis - Page 81, Norman Oliver Brown - 1991〕
==Etymology and meaning==

The word ' appears about 70 times in the Quran itself, assuming various meanings. It is a verbal noun (') of the Arabic verb ' (), meaning "he read" or "he recited". The Syriac equivalent is () ', which refers to "scripture reading" or "lesson".〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://cal.huc.edu/searchroots.php?pos=N&lemma=qryn )〕 While some Western scholars consider the word to be derived from the Syriac, the majority of Muslim authorities hold the origin of the word is ' itself.〔 Regardless, it had become an Arabic term by Muhammad's lifetime.〔 An important meaning of the word is the "act of reciting", as reflected in an early Quranic passage: "It is for Us to collect it and to recite it ()."
In other verses, the word refers to "an individual passage recited (Muhammad )". Its liturgical context is seen in a number of passages, for example: ''"So when ' is recited, listen to it and keep silent."'' The word may also assume the meaning of a codified scripture when mentioned with other scriptures such as the Torah and Gospel.〔See "Ķur'an, al-," ''Encyclopedia of Islam Online'' and 〕
The term also has closely related synonyms that are employed throughout the Quran. Each synonym possesses its own distinct meaning, but its use may converge with that of ' in certain contexts. Such terms include ' (book); ' (sign); and ' (scripture). The latter two terms also denote units of revelation. In the large majority of contexts, usually with a definite article (''al-''), the word is referred to as the "revelation" (''waḥy''), that which has been "sent down" (''tanzīl'') at intervals.〔 cf.〕〔 cf.〕 Other related words are: ' (remembrance), used to refer to the Quran in the sense of a reminder and warning, and ' (wisdom), sometimes referring to the revelation or part of it.〔〔According to Welch in the ''Encyclopedia of Islam'', the verses pertaining to the usage of the word ''hikma'' should probably be interpreted in the light of IV, 105, where it is said that "Muhammad is to judge (''tahkum'') mankind on the basis of the Book sent down to him."〕
The Quran describes itself as "the discernment" (''al-furqān''), "the mother book" (''umm al-kitāb''), "the guide" (''huda''), "the wisdom" (''hikmah''), "the remembrance" (''dhikr'') and "the revelation" (''tanzīl''; something sent down, signifying the descent of an object from a higher place to lower place). Another term is ' (The Book), though it is also used in the Arabic language for other scriptures, such as the Torah and the Gospels. The adjective of "Quran" has multiple transliterations including "quranic", "koranic", and "qur'anic", or capitalised as "Qur'anic", "Koranic", and "Quranic". The term ''mus'haf'' ('written work') is often used to refer to particular Quranic manuscripts but is also used in the Quran to identify earlier revealed books.〔 Other transliterations of "Quran" include "al-Coran", "Coran", "Kuran", and "al-Qurʼan".〔("Quran" ), 〕

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