''Hadith'' ( or ; (アラビア語:حديث) , plural: , ) are the collections of the reports claiming to quote what the prophet Muhammad said verbatim on any matter. The term comes from the Arabic meaning "report", "account" or "narrative". Hadiths are second only to the Quran in developing Islamic jurisprudence,〔Ibn Hajar, Ahmad. ''al-Nukat ala Kitab ibn al-Salah'', vol. 1, p. 90. Maktabah al-Furqan.〕 and regarded as important tools for understanding the Quran and commentaries (''tafsir'') on it. Many important elements of traditional Islam such as five salat prayers,〔Kadri, ''Heaven on Earth'', 2012: p.83〕 the abhorrence of paintings and sculpture of living things,〔Kadri, ''Heaven on Earth'', 2012: p.85〕 stoning adulterers,〔Kadri, ''Heaven on Earth'', 2012: p.65〕 are mentioned in hadith but not the Quran. Some hadith are neutral in the view of Muslims while sunnah is recommended duty for Muslims.
The hadith literature is based on spoken reports that were in circulation in society after the death of Muhammad. Unlike the Quran itself, which was compiled under the official direction of the early Islamic State in Medinah, the hadith reports were not compiled by a central authority. Hadith were evaluated and gathered into large collections during the 8th and 9th centuries, generations after the death of Muhammad, after the end of the era of the "rightful" Rashidun Caliphate, over 1000 km from where Muhammad lived.
Each hadith is based on two parts, a chain of narrators reporting the hadith (''isnad''), and the text itself (''matn''). Individual hadith are classified by Muslim clerics and jurists as ''sahih'' ("authentic"), ''hasan'' ("good") or ''da'if'' ("weak").〔The Future of Muslim Civilisation by Ziauddin Sardar, 1979, page 26.〕 However, there is no overall agreement: different groups and different individual scholars may classify a hadith differently.
Different branches of Islam (Sunni, Shia, Ibadi, Ahmadiyya) refer to different collections of hadith, and the small heterodox Quranists, reject the authority of the hadith collections.〔Aisha Y. Musa, The Qur’anists, Florida International University, accessed May 22, 2013.〕〔Neal Robinson (2013), Islam: A Concise Introduction, Routledge, ISBN 978-0878402243, Chapter 7, pp. 85-89〕
In Arabic, the word ' ((アラビア語:حديث) ' ) means a "report, account, narrative".〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Mawrid Reader )〕 The Arabic plural is ʾaḥādīth (أحاديث) (). ''Hadith'' also refers to the speech of a person.〔''Lisan al-Arab'', by Ibn Manthour, vol. 2, p. 350; Dar al-Hadith edition.〕 It is a noun.〔''al-Kuliyat'' by Abu al-Baqa’ al-Kafawi, p. 370; Mu'assasah l-Risalah. This last phrase is quoted by al-Qasimi in ''Qawaid al-Tahdith'', p. 61; Dar al-Nafais.〕
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