, tr. ''āl-Baḥr āl-ābyaḍ āl-Mutawassiṭ'' (:aːlˈbaħr aːlˈaːbjadˤ aːlmutawaˈsitˤ)
* (カタルーニャ語、バレンシア語:Mar Mediterràni''(''a'')'' ) (:ˈmaɾ məðitəˈrani(ə))
* (フランス語:Mer Méditerranée) (:mɛʁ me.di.te.ʁa.ne)
* , tr. ''Mesógeios Thálassa'' (:meˈsoʝos ˈθalasa)
* (ヘブライ語:הים התיכון), tr. ''Hayám Hatikhón'' (:haˈjam hatiˈkon)
* (イタリア語:Mar Mediterraneo) (:ˈmar mediterˈraːneo)
* (ラテン語:Mare Nostrum), (:ˈmarɛ ˈnostrũː)
* ( マルタ語:Baħar Mediterran) (:ˈbɐːħɐr mɛdɪˈtɛrːɐn)
* (スロベニア語:Sredozemsko morje) (:srɛdɔˈzéːmskɔ ˈmóːrjɛ)
* (スペイン語:Mar Mediterráneo) (:ˈmar meðiteˈraneo)
* (トルコ語:Akdeniz) (:ˈakdeniz)}}
| image = Mediterranee 02 EN.jpg
| caption = Map of the Mediterranean Sea
| image_bathymetry =
| caption_bathymetry =
| coords =
| type = Sea
| inflow = Atlantic, Sea of Marmara, Nile, Ebro, Rhône, Chelif, Po
| outflow =
| catchment =
| basin_countries =
| length =
| width =
| area =
| depth =
| max-depth =
| volume =
| residence_time = 80-100 years
| shore =
| elevation =
| frozen =
| islands = 3300+
| cities = Alexandria, Algiers, Athens, Barcelona, Beirut, Carthage, İzmir, Rome, Tangier, Tel Aviv, Tripoli, Tunis
| reference =
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant. The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water.
The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin ''mediterraneus'', meaning "inland" or "in the middle of the land" (from ''medius'', "middle" and ''terra'', "land"). It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2 (965,000 sq mi), but its connection to the Atlantic (the Strait of Gibraltar) is only wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the ''Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea'' or the ''European Mediterranean Sea'' to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Microsoft Word — ext_abstr_East_sea_workshop_TLM.doc )〕
The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of and the deepest recorded point is in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, and in the south by Africa, is locoated between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 5°50′ W and 36° E. Its west-east length,from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is approximately 2,500 miles (4,000 km). The sea's average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 500 miles (800 km). The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has a surface area of approximately 970,000 square miles (2,510,000 square km).
The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies.
The countries with coastlines on the Mediterranean Sea are Albania, Algeria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Morocco, Monaco, Montenegro, Northern Cyprus (recognized only by Turkey), Palestine, Slovenia, Spain, Syria, Turkey, and Tunisia. In addition, Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia are British Overseas Territories with coastlines on the sea.
The term ''Mediterranean'' derives from the Latin word ''mediterraneus'', meaning "in the middle of earth" or "between lands" (''medi-''; adj. ''medius'', ''-um -a'' "middle, between" + ''terra'' f., "land, earth"): as it is between the continents of Africa, Asia and Europe. The Greek name ''Mesogeios'' (Μεσόγειος), is similarly from μέσο, "middle" + γη, "land, earth").〔(entry μεσόγαιος ) at Liddell & Scott〕
The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names. For example, the Carthaginians called it the "Syrian Sea" and latter Romans commonly called it ''Mare Nostrum'' (Latin, "Our Sea"), and occasionally ''Mare Internum'' (Sallust, ''Jug.'' 17).
In ancient Syrian texts and Phoenician epics and in the Hebrew Bible, it was primarily known as the "Great Sea" (הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל, HaYam HaGadol, Numbers 34:6,7; Joshua 1:4, 9:1, 15:47; Ezekiel 47:10,15,20), or simply "The Sea" (1 Kings 5:9; ''comp.'' 1 Macc. 14:34, 15:11); however, it has also been called the "Hinder Sea" (הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן), due to its location on the west coast of Greater Syria or the Holy Land, and therefore behind a person facing the east, sometimes translated as "Western Sea", (Deut. 11:24; Joel 2:20). Another name was the "Sea of the Philistines" (יָם פְּלִשְׁתִּים, Exod. 23:31), from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. The sea is also called the "Great Sea" (Middle English: ''Grete See'') in the General Prologue by Geoffrey Chaucer. In Ottoman Turkish, it has also been called ''Bahr-i Sefid'', meaning the "Pure White Sea".
In Modern Hebrew, it has been called ''HaYam HaTikhon'' (), "the Middle Sea", reflecting the Sea's name in ancient Greek (''Mesogeios''), Latin (''Mare internum''), German (''Mittelmeer''), and modern languages in both Europe and the Middle East (''Mediterranean'', etc.).
Similarly, in Modern Arabic, it is known as ' (), "the () Middle Sea", while in Islamic and older Arabic literature, it was referenced as ' (), or "the Romaic/Byzantine Sea."
In Turkish, it is known as ''Akdeniz'',〔Özhan Öztürk claims that in Old Turkish ''ak'' also means "west" and that ''Akdeniz'' hence means "West Sea", while ''Karadeniz'' (Black Sea) means "North Sea". Özhan Öztürk. 〕 "the White Sea" since among Turks the white color (ak) represents the west.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』