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Egypt : ウィキペディア英語版

|established_date1 = c. 3150 BC
|established_event2 = Muhammad Ali Dynasty inaugurated
|established_date2 = 9 July 1805
|established_event3 =
|established_date3 = 28 February 1922
|established_event4 = Republic declared
|established_date4 = 18 June 1953
|established_event5 = Revolution Day
|established_date5 = 23 July 1952
|established_event6 = Current Constitution
|established_date6 = 18 January 2014
|area_rank = 30th
|area_magnitude = 1 E12
|area_km2 = 1,010,407.87 〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Total area km2, pg.15 )
|area_sq_mi = 387,048
|percent_water = 0.632
|population_estimate = 000}}
|population_estimate_year = 2015
|population_estimate_rank = 15th
|population_census = 72,798,000〔
|population_census_year = 2006
|population_density_km2 = 84
|population_density_sq_mi = 218
|population_density_rank = 126th
|GDP_PPP_year = 2015
|GDP_PPP_rank = 24th
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $11,194〔
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 100th
|GDP_nominal =
|GDP_nominal_rank = 34th
|GDP_nominal_year = 2015
|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $3,724〔
|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 115th
|Gini_year = 2008
|Gini_change =
|Gini = 30.8
|Gini_ref = 〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=GINI index )
|Gini_rank =
|HDI_year = 2013
|HDI_change = decrease
|HDI = 0.682
|HDI_ref =
|HDI_rank = 110th
|currency = Egyptian pound
|currency_code = EGP
|time_zone = EET
|utc_offset = +2
|time_zone_DST =
|utc_offset_DST =
|drives_on = right
|calling_code = +20
|cctld =
|footnote_a = Literary Arabic is the sole official language.〔 Egyptian Arabic is the national spoken language. Other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally.
|footnote_b= "Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice. In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation".〔name="USDept of State/Egypt"〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Modern Egypt )〕 Arthur Goldschmidt Jr.
Egypt (; (アラビア語:مِصر) ', ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. It is the world's only contiguous Eurafrasian nation. Most of Egypt's territory of lies within the Nile Valley. Egypt is a Mediterranean country. It is bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.
Egypt has one of the longest histories of any modern country, arising in the tenth millennium BC as one of the world's first nation states.〔Midant-Reynes, Béatrix. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Kings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.〕 Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government in history. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of archaeological study and popular interest worldwide. Egypt's rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, having endured and at times assimilated various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman, and European. Although Christianised during the common era, it was subsequently Islamised due to the Islamic conquests of the 7th century.
With over 89 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa and the Arab World, the third-most populous in Africa (after Nigeria and Ethiopia), and the fifteenth-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about , where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
Modern Egypt is considered to be a regional and middle power, with significant cultural, political, and military influence in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world.〔Andrew F. Cooper, Agata Antkiewicz and Timothy M. Shaw, 'Lessons from/for BRICSAM about South-North Relations at the Start of the 21st Century: Economic Size Trumps All Else?', ''International Studies Review,'' Vol. 9, No. 4 (Winter, 2007), pp. 675, 687.〕 Its economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, with sectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry and services at almost equal production levels. In 2011, longtime President Hosni Mubarak stepped down amid mass protests. Later elections saw the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood, which was ousted by the army a year later amid mass protests.

The English name ''Egypt'' is derived from the Ancient Greek ' (), via Middle French ''Egypte'' and Latin ''ラテン語:Aegyptus''. It is reflected in early Greek Linear B tablets as ''a-ku-pi-ti-yo''. The adjective ''aigýpti-, aigýptios'' was borrowed into Coptic as '', ''and from there into Arabic as ', back formed into ', whence English ''Copt''. The Greek forms were borrowed from Late Egyptian ''(Amarna) Hikuptah'' "Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name
(), meaning "home of the ka (soul) of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis. Strabo attributed the word to a folk etymology in which ' () evolved as a compound from ' (), meaning "below the Aegean".

' ( or ; (アラビア語:مِصر)) is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while ' (; ) is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew ('). The oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian 𒆳 𒈪 𒄑 𒊒 KURmi-iṣ-ru ''miṣru,''〔The ending of the Hebrew form is either a dual or an ending identical to the dual in form (perhaps a locative), and this has sometimes been taken as referring to the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt. However, the application of the (possibly) "dual" ending to some toponyms and other words, a development peculiar to Hebrew, does not in fact imply any "two-ness" about the place. The ending is found, for example, in the Hebrew words for such single entities as "water" (מַיִם), "noon" (צָהֳרַיִם), "sky/heaven" (שָׁמַיִם), and in the ''qere'' – but not the original ''ketiv'' – of "Jerusalem" (ירושל()ם). It should also be noted that the dual ending – which may or may not be what the ''-áyim'' in ''Mitzráyim'' actually represents – was available to other Semitic languages, such as Arabic, but was not applied to Egypt. See ''inter alia'' Aaron Demsky ("Hebrew Names in the Dual Form and the Toponym Yerushalayim" in Demsky (ed.) ''These Are the Names: Studies in Jewish Onomastics'', Vol. 3 (Ramat Gan, 2002), pp. 11-20), Avi Hurvitz (''A Concise Lexicon of Late Biblical Hebrew: Linguistic Innovations in the Writings of the Second Temple Period'' (Brill, 2014), (p. 128 )) and Nadav Na’aman ("Shaaraim – The Gateway to the Kingdom of Judah" in ''The Journal of Hebrew Scriptures'', Vol. 8 (2008), article (no. 24 ), pp. 2-3).〕 related to ''miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru'', meaning "border" or "frontier".
The ancient Egyptian name of the country was
, which means black ground or black soil, referring to the fertile black soils of the Nile flood plains, distinct from the ''deshret'' (), or "red land" of the desert. This name is commonly vocalised as ''Kemet'', but was probably pronounced in ancient Egyptian.〔Antonio Loprieno, "Egyptian and Coptic Phonology", in ''Phonologies of Asia and Africa (including the Caucasus). Vol 1 of 2.'' Ed: Alan S Kaye. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1997: p 449〕 The name is realised as ' and ' in the Coptic stage of the Egyptian language, and appeared in early Greek as (').〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=A Brief History of Alchemy )〕 Another name was "land of the riverbank". The names of Upper and Lower Egypt were ''Ta-Sheme'aw'' () "sedgeland" and ''Ta-Mehew'' () "northland", respectively.



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