Manchuria () is a modern name given to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. Depending on the definition of its extent, Manchuria usually〔("Manchuria". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 17 Jun. 2012 )〕〔http://oxforddictionaries.com/view/entry/m_en_gb0496460#m_en_gb0496460〕〔http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/manchuria〕 falls entirely within China, or is sometimes divided between China and Russia. The region is now usually referred to as ''Northeast China'' () in China although "Manchuria" is widely used outside of China to denote the geographical and historical region. This region is the traditional homeland of the Xianbei, Khitan, and Jurchen peoples, who built several states historically. (The Jurchen, later called the Manchus, are those after whom Manchuria is named.)
==Extent of Manchuria==
Manchuria can refer to any one of several regions of various size. These are, from smallest to largest:
#Northeast China (Dongbei): consisting of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces. This is the area referred to as "Manchuria" in the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions.
#Inner Manchuria: the above, plus parts of modern Inner Mongolia (Hulunbuir, Hinggan, Tongliao, and Chifeng divisions);
#The above, plus Outer Manchuria (Russian Manchuria): the area from the Amur and Ussuri rivers to the Stanovoy Mountains and the Sea of Japan. In Russian administrative terms, Primorsky Krai, southern Khabarovsk Krai, the Jewish Autonomous Oblast and Amur Oblast. These were part of Manchu China according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689, but were ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Aigun (1858).
#The above, plus Sakhalin Island, which is generally included on Qing Dynasty maps as part of Outer Manchuria even though it is not explicitly mentioned in the Treaty of Nerchinsk. The island was also included in Manchuria on maps made by the Japanese Shogunate and Russian Empire. Despite maps and empires, the island was inhabited by Ainu people until the Soviet Union enforced an evacuation policy after 1945.
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