|leader_title1 = President of the ROK
|leader_name1 = Park Geun-hye
|leader_title2 = Supreme Leader of the DPRK
|leader_name2 = Kim Jong-un
|common_name = Korea
|image_map = Koreas on the globe (Japan centered).svg
|languages = Korean
|languages_type = Language(s)
|membership_type = Sovereign states
|largest_city = Seoul (), Pyongyang ()
|area_km2 = 219,155
|area_sq_mi = 84,610
|percent_water = 2.8
|population_estimate_year = 2015
|population_estimate = 76,497,881
|population_density_km2 = 328.49
|population_density_sq_mi = 850.7
|currency = North Korean won (₩)
South Korean won (₩)
|time_zone = KST, PYT
|utc_offset = +9 (South Korea)
UTC+8.5 (North Korea)
Korea, called Hanguk ((朝鮮語:한국); Hanja: ) or Daehan ((朝鮮語:대한); Hanja: ) in South Korea and Chosŏn ((朝鮮語:조선); Hanja: ) in North Korea, is an East Asian territory that is divided into two distinct sovereign states, North Korea (also known as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, or DPRK) and South Korea (also known as the Republic of Korea, or ROK). Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast. It is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan (East Sea).
Korea emerged as a singular political entity after centuries of conflict among the Three Kingdoms of Korea, which were unified as Silla (57 BC – AD 935) and Balhae (AD 698 – 926). The united Silla was eventually succeeded by Goryeo in 935 at the end of the Later Three Kingdoms period. Goryeo, which gave name to the modern exonym "Korea", was a highly cultured state and created the Jikji in the 14th century. The invasions by the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, however, greatly weakened the nation, which forced it into vassalage. After the Yuan dynasty's collapse, severe political strife followed. Goryeo eventually fell to an uprising led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 1388.
The first 200 years of Joseon were marked by relative peace and saw the creation of the Korean alphabet by King Sejong the Great in the 14th century and the increasing influence of Confucianism. During the later part of the dynasty, however, Korea's isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the "Hermit kingdom". By the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. Despite attempts at modernization by the Korean Empire, in 1910, Korea was annexed by Japan and remained a part of Imperial Japan until the end of World War II in August 1945.
In 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed on the surrender of Japanese forces in Korea in the aftermath of World War II, leaving Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel, with the North under Soviet occupation and the south under U.S. occupation. These circumstances soon became the basis for the division of Korea by the two superpowers, exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence. The Communist-inspired government in the North received backing from the Soviet Union in opposition to the pro-Western government in the South, leading to Korea's division into two political entities: North Korea and South Korea. This eventually led to war in 1950, which became the Korean War. The war did not produce a formalized peace treaty, a factor that contributes to the high tensions which continue to divide the peninsula.
(詳細はKorean, adj. and n. )" Accessed 20 December 2013.〕 It is an exonym derived from ''Cauli'', Marco Polo's transcription〔Haw, Stephen. ''Marco Polo in China: A Venetian in the realm of Khubilai Khan'', (pp. 4–5 ). Routledge (Abingdon), 2012. Accessed 20 December 2013.〕 of the Chinese (simp. , MC ''Kawlej'',〔Baxter, William & al. "(Baxter–Sagart Old Chinese Reconstruction )". 20 February 2011. Accessed 20 December 2013.〕 mod. ''Gāolì'').}} This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo or which ruled most of the peninsula during the time of his travels. (Scholars who discount the historicity of Polo's account instead derive it via Persian variations of the same Chinese name.) Goryeo's name was an homage to the earlier Goguryeo or the northernmost of the ''Samguk'' (the Three Kingdoms of Korea), which was officially known by the shortened form Goryeo after the 5th-century reign of King Jangsu. The original name was a combination of the adjective ''go'' ("high, lofty") with the name of a local Yemaek tribe, whose original name is thought to have been either
* "walled city," inferred from some toponyms in Chinese historical documents) or
* "center"). With expanding British and American trade following the opening of Korea in the late 19th century, the spelling "Korea" appeared and gradually grew in popularity;〔 its use in transcribing East Asian languages avoids the issues caused by the separate hard and soft Cs existing in English vocabulary derived from the Romance languages. The name Korea is now commonly used in English contexts by both North and South Korea.
In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as lit. "country of the ''Han''"). The name references the ''Samhan''Ma, Jin, and Byeonwho preceded the Three Kingdoms in the southern and central end of the peninsula during the 1st centuries and . Although written in Hanja as , , or , this ''Han'' has no relation to the Chinese place names or peoples who used those characters but was a or ''Gan'') of a native Korean word that seems to have had the meaning "big" or "great", particularly in reference to leaders. It has been tentatively linked with the title ''khan'' used by the nomads of Manchuria and Central Asia.
In North Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Chosŏn lit. "(of the ) Morning Calm"). "Great Joseon" was the name of the kingdom ruled by the Joseon dynasty from 1393 until their declaration of the short-lived Great Korean Empire in 1897. King Taejo had named them for the earlier who ruled northern Korea from its legendary prehistory until their conquest in 108 by China's Han Empire. This ''go'' is the Hanja and simply means "ancient" or "old"; it's a modern usage to distinguish the ancient Joseon from the later dynasty. ''Joseon'' itself is the modern Korean pronunciation of but it is unclear whether this was a transcription of a native Korean name (OC
*''T()awser'', MC ''Trjewsjen''〔) or a partial translation into Chinese of the Korean capital }} whose meaning has been reconstructed as "Morning Land" or "Mountain".
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』