Fixed-wing aircraft, popularly called aeroplanes, airplanes, or just planes, may be built with many wing configurations.
This page provides a breakdown of types, allowing a full description of any aircraft's wing configuration. For example the Spitfire wing may be classified as a ''conventional low wing cantilever monoplane with straight elliptical wings of moderate aspect ratio and slight dihedral''.
Sometimes the distinction between types is blurred, for example the wings of many modern combat aircraft may be described either as cropped compound deltas with (forwards or backwards) swept trailing edge, or as sharply tapered swept wings with large "Leading Edge Root Extension" (or LERX).
All the configurations described have flown (if only very briefly) on full-size aircraft, except as noted.
Some variants may be duplicated under more than one heading, due to their complex nature. This is particularly so for variable geometry and combined (closed) wing types.
Note on terminology: Most fixed-wing aircraft have left hand (port) and right hand (starboard) wings in a symmetrical arrangement. Strictly, such a pair of wings is called a wing plane or just plane. However in certain situations it is common to refer to a plane as a wing, as in "a biplane has two wings", or to refer to the whole thing as a wing, as in "a biplane wing has two planes". Where the meaning is clear, this article follows common usage, only being more precise where needed to avoid real ambiguity or incorrectness.
==Number and position of main-planes==
Fixed-wing aircraft can have different numbers of wings:
* Monoplane: one wing plane. Since the 1930s most aeroplanes have been monoplanes. The wing may be mounted at various positions relative to the fuselage:
* Low wing: mounted near or below the bottom of the fuselage.
* Mid wing: mounted approximately halfway up the fuselage.
* Shoulder wing: mounted on the upper part or "shoulder" of the fuselage, slightly below the top of the fuselage. A shoulder wing is sometimes considered a subtype of high wing.〔Taylor, J. (Ed.), ''Jayne's all the world's aircraft 1980-81, Jane's (1980)〕〔Green, W.; ''Warplanes of the second world war, Vol. 5, Flying boats'', Macdonald (1962), p.131〕
* High wing: mounted on the upper fuselage. When contrasted to the shoulder wing, applies to a wing mounted on a projection (such as the cabin roof) above the top of the main fuselage.
* Parasol wing: raised clear above the top of the fuselage, typically by cabane struts, pylon(s) or pedestal(s).
A fixed-wing aircraft may have more than one wing plane, stacked one above another:
* Biplane: two wing planes of similar size, stacked one above the other. The most common configuration until the 1930s, when the monoplane took over. The Wright Flyer I was a biplane.
* Unequal-span biplane: a biplane in which one wing (usually the lower) is shorter than the other, as on the Curtiss JN-4 Jenny of the First World War.
* Sesquiplane: literally "one-and-a-half planes" is a type of biplane in which the lower wing is significantly smaller than the upper wing, either in span or chord or both. The Nieuport 17 of WWI was notably successful.
* Inverted sesquiplane: has a significantly smaller upper wing. The Fiat CR.1 was in production for many years.
* Triplane: three planes stacked one above another. Triplanes such as the Fokker Dr.I enjoyed a brief period of popularity during the First World War due to their manoeuvrability, but were soon replaced by improved biplanes.
* Quadruplane: four planes stacked one above another. A small number of the Armstrong Whitworth F.K.10 were built in the First World War but never saw service.
* Multiplane: many planes, sometimes used to mean more than one or more than some arbitrary number. The term is occasionally applied to arrangements stacked in tandem as well as vertically. The 1907 Multiplane of Horatio Frederick Phillips flew successfully with two hundred wing foils, while the nine-wing Caproni Ca.60 flying boat was airborne briefly before crashing.
A staggered design has the upper wing slightly forward of the lower. Long thought to reduce the interference caused by the low pressure air over the lower wing mixing with the high pressure air under the upper wing however the improvement is minimal and its primary benefit is to improve access to the fuselage. It is common on many successful biplanes and triplanes. Backwards stagger is also seen in a few examples such as the Beechcraft Staggerwing.
A tandem wing design has two wings, one behind the other: see Tailplanes and foreplanes below. Some early types had tandem stacks of multiple planes—see the article on multiplanes.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』