A name is a word or term used for identification. Names can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given context. A personal name identifies, not necessarily uniquely, a ''specific'' individual human. The name of a specific entity is sometimes called a proper name (although that term has a philosophical meaning also) and is, when consisting of only one word, a proper noun. Other nouns are sometimes called "common names" or (obsolete) "general names". A name can be given to a person, place, or thing; for example, parents can give their child a name or scientist can give an element a name.
Caution must be exercised when translating, for there are ways that one language may prefer one type of name over another. A feudal naming habit is used sometimes in other languages: the French sometimes refer to Aristotle as "le Stagirite" from one spelling of his place of birth, and English speakers often refer to Shakespeare as "The Bard", recognizing him as a paragon writer of the language. Also, claims to preference or authority can be refuted: the British did not refer to Louis-Napoleon as Napoleon III during his rule.
== Etymology ==
The word "name" comes from Old English ''nama''; akin to Old High German (OHG) ''namo'', Sanskrit ''नामन्'' (nāman), Latin ''nomen'', and Greek ''ὄνομα'' (''onoma''),〔(ὄνομα ), Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, ''A Greek-English Lexicon'', on Perseus project〕 possibly from the Proto-Indo-European (PIE)
*nomn-.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=name&searchmode=none ); The asterisk before a word indicates that it is a hypothetical construction, not an attested form.〕 Also note the similarity to the Tamil "''namam''".
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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