Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes, dolines, and caves.〔(What is Karst, University of Texas at Austin )〕 It has also been documented for weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions.〔Geomorphological Landscapes of the World.〕 Subterranean drainage may limit surface water with few to no rivers or lakes. However, in regions where the dissolved bedrock is covered (perhaps by debris) or confined by one or more superimposed non-soluble rock strata, distinctive karst surface developments might be totally missing.
The English word ''karst'' was borrowed from German ''Karst'' in the late 19th century.〔''Shorter Oxford English Dictionary''. 2002. Vol. 1, A–M. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 1481.〕 The German word came into use before the 19th century.〔Seebold, Elmar. 1999. ''Kluge Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache'', 23rd edition. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, p. 429.〕 According to the prevalent interpretation, the term is derived from the German name for the Kras region (Italian: ''Carso''), a limestone plateau surrounding the city of Trieste in the northern Adriatic (nowadays, located on the border between Slovenia and Italy, in the 19th century part of the Austrian Littoral).〔http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=karst&searchmode=none〕 Scholars disagree, however, on whether the German word (which shows no metathesis) was borrowed from Slovene.〔Pfeiffer, Dieter. 1961. "Zur Definition von Begriffen der Karst-Hydrologie." ''Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft'' 113: 51–60, p. 52〕〔Pörtner, Rudolf. 1986. ''Bevor die Römer kamen: Städte und Stätten deutscher Urgeschichte.'' Rasatt: Pabel-Moewig Verlag, p. 88.〕 The Slovene common noun ''kras'' was first attested in the 18th century, and the adjective form ''kraški'' in the 16th century.〔Snoj, Marko. 2003. ''Slovenski etimološki slovar''. 2nd edition. Ljubljana: Modrijan, p. 318.〕 As a proper noun, the Slovene form ''Grast'' was first attested in 1177,〔Bezlaj, France (ed.). 1982. ''Etimološki slovar slovenskega jezika'', vol. 2, K–O. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 82.〕 referring to the Karst Plateau—a region in Slovenia partially extending into Italy, where the first research on karst topography was carried out. The Slovene words arose through metathesis from the reconstructed form ''
*korsъ'',〔 borrowed from Dalmatian Romance ''carsus''.〔 Ultimately, the word is of Mediterranean origin,〔 believed to derive from some Romanized Illyrian base.〔 It has been suggested that the word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root ''karra-'' "rock".〔〔Gams, I., ''Kras v Sloveniji — v prostoru in casu'' (Karst in Slovenia in space and time), 2003, ISBN 961-6500-46-5.〕 The name may also be connected to the oronym ''Kar(u)sádios oros'' cited by Ptolemy, and perhaps also to Latin ''Carusardius''.〔〔
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
| 翻訳と辞書 : 翻訳のためのインターネットリソース|
Copyright(C) kotoba.ne.jp 1997-2016. All Rights Reserved.