The ' (; plural: ', ) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.
==Importance and function==
The ''comune'' provides many of the basic civil functions: registry of births and deaths, registry of deeds, and contracting for local roads and public works.
It is headed by a mayor (') assisted by a legislative body, the ', and an executive body, the '. The mayor and members of the ' are elected together by resident citizens: the coalition of the elected mayor (who needs an absolute majority in the first or second round of voting) gains three fifths of the Council's seats. The ' is chaired by the mayor, who appoints others members, called '. The offices of the ' are housed in a building usually called the ', or '.
As of 2016 there were 8,010 ''comuni'' in Italy; they vary considerably in area and population. For example, the ''comune'' of Rome (Lazio) has an area of 1,307.71 km² and a population of 2,761,477, and is both the largest and the most populated ''comune'' in Italy; Fiera di Primiero (Province of Trento) is the smallest ''comune'' by area, with only 0.15 km², and Pedesina (Province of Sondrio) is the smallest by population, with only 34 inhabitants. The smallest non-alpine ''comune'' in Italy is Montelapiano (Province of Chieti), the fourth is Carapelle Calvisio (Province of L'Aquila), both in the mountainous region of Abruzzo.
The density of ''comuni'' varies widely by province and region: the province of Bari, for example, has 1,564,000 inhabitants in 48 municipalities, or over 32,000 inhabitants per municipality; whereas the Aosta Valley has 121,000 inhabitants in 74 municipalities, or 1,630 inhabitants per municipality – roughly twenty times more communal units per inhabitant. There are inefficiencies at both ends of the scale, and there is concern about optimizing the size of the comuni so they may best function in the modern world, but planners are hampered by the historical resonances of the comuni, which often reach back many hundreds of years, or even a full millennium.
While provinces and regions are creations of the central government, and subject to fairly frequent border changes, the natural cultural unit is indeed the ''comune'' – for many Italians, their hometown. In recent years especially, it has thus become quite rare for ''comuni'' either to merge or to break apart.
Many ''comuni'' also have a municipal police (''polizia municipale''), which is responsible for public order duties. Traffic control is their main function in addition to controlling commercial establishments to ensure they open and close according to their license.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』