A municipality is usually an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government or jurisdiction. The term ''municipality'' is also used to mean the governing, ruling body of a municipality.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Municipality )〕 A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district. The term is derived from French "municipalité" and Latin "municipalis".〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=municipality definition )〕
The English word "Municipality" derives from the Latin social contract "municipium", meaning ''duty holders'', referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting Roman citizenship to the inhabitants) while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy).
A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, or a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass
* only one populated place such as a city, town, or village
* several of such places (e.g., early jurisdictions in the state of New Jersey (1798–1899) as townships governing several villages, Municipalities of Mexico)
* only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Santiago de Chile – Comunas )〕
The power of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, and corporate income tax, but may also receive substantial funding from the state.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』