A composer (Latin ''com''+''ponere'', literally "one who puts together") is a person who creates music. The core meaning of the term refers to individuals who have contributed to the tradition of Western classical music through creation of works expressed in written musical notation. In broader usage, "composer" can designate people who participate in other musical traditions, as well as those who create music by means other than written notation: for example, through improvisation, recording, and arrangement. In popular music genres, musicians who create new songs are typically called songwriters.
==Composers and performers==
Since musical notation only incompletely expresses the form of music, there is a whole continuum of possibilities concerning how much the performer determines the final form of the rendered work. Even in a classical piece of instrumental music in which all of the melodies, chords, and basslines are written out in musical notation, the performer has a good degree of latitude to add artistic interpretation to the work by varying her articulation and phrasing, choosing how long to make fermatas (held notes) or pauses, and — in the case of bowed string instruments, woodwinds or brass instruments — deciding whether to use expressive effects such as vibrato or portamento. Music composed in the Baroque era, particularly in slow tempos, often was written in bare outline, with the expectation that the performer would add improvised ornaments to the melody line during a performance. Such freedom diminished in later eras, reflected in the increased use by composers of detailed notation, including marks of expression telling the performer more precisely how the work should be executed. A culture eventually developed whereby faithfulness to the composer's written intention came to be highly valued (see, for example, Urtext edition). This musical culture is almost certainly related to the high esteem (bordering on veneration) in which the leading classical composers are often held by performers.
The historically informed performance movement has revived to some extent the possibility of the performer elaborating in a serious way the music as given in the score, particularly for Baroque music and music from the early Classical period. The movement might be considered a way of creating ''greater'' faithfulness to the original in works composed at a time that expected performers to improvise. In genres other than classical music, the performer generally has more freedom; thus for instance when a performer of Western popular music creates a "cover" of an earlier song, there is little expectation of exact rendition of the original; nor is exact faithfulness highly valued (with the possible exception of "note-for-note" transcriptions of famous guitar solos).
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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