Cisgender (often abbreviated to simply cis) describes related types of gender identity perceptions, where individuals' experiences of their own gender agree with the sex they were assigned at birth.〔Crethar, H. C. & Vargas, L. A. (2007). ''Multicultural intricacies in professional counseling.'' In J. Gregoire & C. Jungers (Eds.), The counselor's companion: What every beginning counselor needs to know. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. ISBN 0-8058-5684-6. p. 61.〕 Sociologists Kristen Schilt and Laurel Westbrook define ''cisgender'' as a label for "individuals who have a match between the gender they were assigned at birth, their bodies, and their personal identity". They see ''cisgender'' as a complement to ''transgender''.〔
There are a number of derivatives of the terms in use, including ''cis male'' for "male assigned male at birth", ''cis female'' for "female assigned female at birth", analogously "cis man" and "cis woman", as well as cissexism (or "cissexual assumption" or "cisnormativity").
==Etymology and terminology==
Cisgender has its origin in the Latin-derived prefix ''cis-'', meaning "on this side of", which is an antonym for the Latin-derived prefix ''trans-, ''meaning "across from" or "on the other side of". This usage can be seen in the cis–trans distinction in chemistry, the cis–trans or complementation test in genetics, in Ciscaucasia (from the Russian perspective) and in the ancient Roman term Cisalpine Gaul (i.e., "Gaul on this side of the Alps"). In the case of gender, ''cis-'' is used to refer to the alignment of gender identity with assigned sex.
A number of derivatives of the terms ''cisgender'' and ''cissexual'' include ''cis male'' for "male assigned male at birth", ''cis female'' for "female assigned female at birth", analogously ''cis man'' and ''cis woman'', as well as ''cissexism'' and ''cissexual assumption''. In addition, one study published in the ''Journal of the International AIDS Society'' used the term ''cisnormativity'', akin to sexual diversity studies' ''heteronormativity''. A related adjective is ''gender-normative''; Eli R. Green has written that "'cisgendered' is used (of the more popular 'gender normative' ) to refer to people who do not , without enforcing existence of a normative gender expression".
Julia Serano has defined ''cissexual'' as "people who are not transsexual and who have only ever experienced their mental and physical sexes as being aligned", while ''cisgender'' is a slightly narrower term for those who do not identify as transgender (a larger cultural category than the more clinical transsexual). For Jessica Cadwallader, ''cissexual'' is "a way of drawing attention to the unmarked norm, against which trans is identified, in which a person feels that their gender identity matches their body/sex".
German sexologist Volkmar Sigusch used the term ''cissexual'' (''zissexuell'' in German) in a peer-reviewed publication: in his 1998 essay "The Neosexual Revolution", he cites his two-part 1991 article "Die Transsexuellen und unser nosomorpher Blick" ("Transsexuals and our nosomorphic view") as the origin of the term. He also used the term in the title of a 1995 article, "Transsexueller Wunsch und zissexuelle Abwehr" (or: "Transsexual desire and cissexual defense").
The terms ''cisgender'' and ''cissexual'' were used in the 2006 article in the ''Journal of Lesbian Studies''〔Green, Eli R. (2006). "Debating Trans Inclusion in the Feminist Movement: A Trans-Positive Analysis," ''Journal of Lesbian Studies''. Volume: 10 Issue: 1/2. pp. 231−248. ISSN 1089-4160〕 and Julia Serano's 2007 book ''Whipping Girl'',〔 after which the term gained some popularity among English-speaking activists and scholars. Jillana Enteen wrote in 2009 that "cissexual" is "meant to show that there are embedded assumptions encoded in expecting this seamless conformity".
Julia Serano also uses the related term ''cissexism'', "which is the belief that transsexuals' identified genders are inferior to, or less authentic than, those of cissexuals".〔Serano (2007) also defines cisgender as synonymous with "non-transgender" and cissexual with "non-transsexual" (p. 33).〕 In 2010 the term "cisgender privilege" appeared in academic literature, defined as the "set of unearned advantages that individuals who identify as the gender they were assigned at birth accrue solely due to having a cisgender identity".〔Walls, N. E., & Costello, K. (2010). "Head ladies center for teacup chain": Exploring cisgender privilege in a (predominantly) gay male context. In S. Anderson and V. Middleton ''Explorations in diversity: Examining privilege and oppression in a multicultural society, 2nd ed.'' (pp. 81−93). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole. Quote appears on p.83.〕
In February 2014, Facebook began offering "custom" gender options, allowing users to identify with one or more gender-related terms from a curated list, including cis, cisgender, and others.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Facebook's New Gender Identity Options )〕 ''Cisgender'' was also added to the ''Oxford English Dictionary'' in June 2015, defined as "designating a person whose sense of personal identity corresponds to the sex and gender assigned to him or her at birth (in contrast with transgender)."
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