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Wales : ウィキペディア英語版

|latd=51 |latm=29 |latNS=N |longd=3 |longm=11 |longEW=W
|largest_city = capital
|languages_type = Official languages
|languages =
|demonym = Welsh

|politics_link = Politics of Wales
|government_type = Devolved parliamentary legislature within parliamentary constitutional monarchy
|monarch = Elizabeth II
|first_minister =
|prime_minister =
|secretary_of_state =
|legislature =
|sovereignty_type = Formation
|established_event1 = Unification by
|established_date1 = 1057〔
|established_event2 =
|established_date2 = 3 March 1284
|established_event3 =
|established_date3 = 1535
|established_event4 = Devolution〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Government of Wales Act 1998 )
|established_date4 = 31 July 1998
|area_rank =
|area_magnitude = 1 E10
|area_km2 = 20,779
|area_sq_mi = 8,022
|percent_water =
|population_estimate = |population_estimate_rank = |population_estimate_year =
|population_census = 3,063,456
|population_census_year = 2011
|population_density_km2 = 148
|population_density_sq_mi = 381
|population_density_rank =
|GDP_PPP = £52.070 billion
|GDP_rank =
|GDP_year = 2013
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = £16,893
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank =
|GDP_nominal = |GDP_nominal_rank = |GDP_nominal_year = |GDP_nominal_per_capita = |GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank =
|Gini_year = |Gini_change = |Gini = |Gini_ref = |Gini_rank =
|HDI_year = |HDI_change = |HDI = |HDI_ref = |HDI_rank =
|patron_saint = Saint David
|cctld =
|official_website =
Wales (; (ウェールズ語:Cymru) ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=The Countries of the UK )bordered by England to its east, the Irish Sea to its north and west, and the Bristol Channel to its south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of . Wales has over of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon (), its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate.
Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, and Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to what was to become modern Wales, in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party. Welsh national feeling grew over the century; ''Plaid Cymru'' was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters.
At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation; the South Wales Coalfield's exploitation caused a rapid expansion of Wales' population. Two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff (the capital), Swansea and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector, light and service industries and tourism. Wales' 2010 gross value added (GVA) was £45.5 billion (£15,145 per head, 74.0% of the average for the UK, and the lowest GVA per head in Britain).
Although Wales closely shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, and the vast majority of the population speaks English, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is officially bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the ''eisteddfod'' tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness.

The English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root (singular ''Walh'', plural ''Walha''), which was itself derived from the name of the Celtic tribe known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all Celts and, later, to all inhabitants of the Roman Empire. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term ''Wælisc'' when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, and Wēalas when referring to their lands.〔 The modern names for some Continental European lands (e.g. Wallonia and Wallachia) and peoples (e.g. the Vlachs via a borrowing into Old Church Slavonic) have a similar etymology.〔Davies (1994) p. 71〕〔(French) Albert Henry, ''Histoire des mots Wallons et Wallonie'', Institut Jules Destrée, Coll. «Notre histoire», Mont-sur-Marchienne, 1990, 3rd ed. (1st ed. 1965), footnote 13 p. 86. Henry wrote the same about Wallachia
Historically in Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain (e.g. Cornwall) and Germanic territories particularly associated with Celtic Britons (e.g. Walworth in County Durham and Walton in West Yorkshire), as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
(詳細はBrythonic word ''combrogi'', meaning "fellow-countrymen".〔Davies (1994) p. 69〕 The use of the word ''Cymry'' as a self-designation derives from the post-Roman Era relationship of the Welsh with the Brythonic-speaking peoples of northern England and southern Scotland, the peoples of "Yr Hen Ogledd" ((英語:The Old North)). It emphasised a perception that the Welsh and the "Men of the North" were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage, culture, and language to both the Welsh and the Men of the North. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century.
It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan (''Moliant Cadwallon'', by Afan Ferddig) .〔Davies (1994) p. 71, The poem contains the line: 'Ar wynep Kymry Cadwallawn was'.〕 In Welsh literature, the word ''Cymry'' was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term ''Brythoniaid'' continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples (including the Welsh) and was the more common literary term until c. 1100. Thereafter ''Cymry'' prevailed as a reference to the Welsh. Until c. 1560 the word was spelt ''Kymry'' or ''Cymry'', regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland.〔
The Latinised forms of these names, ''Cambrian'', ''Cambric'' and ''Cambria'', survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains (which cover much of Wales and gave their name to the Cambrian geological period), the newspaper ''Cambrian News'', and the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, which was once a part of ''Yr Hen Ogledd''. The Cumbric language, which is thought to have been closely related to Welsh, was spoken in this area until becoming extinct around the 12th century. This form also appears at times in literary references, perhaps most notably in the pseudohistorical "''Historia Regum Britanniae''" of Geoffrey of Monmouth, where the character of Camber is described as the eponymous King of Cymru.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

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