Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers. The production of metals involves the processing of ores to extract the metal they contain, and the mixture of metals, sometimes with other elements, to produce alloys. Metallurgy is distinguished from the craft of metalworking, although metalworking relies on metallurgy, as medicine relies on medical science, for technical advancement.
Metallurgy is subdivided into ''ferrous metallurgy'' (sometimes also known as black metallurgy) and ''non-ferrous metallurgy'' or ''colored metallurgy''. Ferrous metallurgy involves processes and alloys based on iron while non-ferrous metallurgy involves processes and alloys based on other metals. The production of ferrous metals accounts for 95 percent of world metal production.〔("Металлургия" ). in ''The Great Soviet Encyclopedia''. 1979.〕
==Etymology and pronunciation==
The roots of ''metallurgy'' derive from Ancient Greek: μεταλλουργός, ''metallourgós'', "worker in metal", from μέταλλον, ''métallon'', "metal" + ἔργον, ''érgon'', "work".
The word was originally an alchemist's term for the extraction of metals from minerals, the ending ''-urgy'' signifying a process, especially manufacturing: it was discussed in this sense in the 1797 Encyclopaedia Britannica.〔''Oxford English Dictionary'', accessed 29 January 2011〕 In the late 19th century it was extended to the more general scientific study of metals, alloys, and related processes.〔
In English, the pronunciation is the more common one in the UK and Commonwealth. The pronunciation is the more common one in the USA, and is the first-listed variant in various American dictionaries (e.g., ''Merriam-Webster Collegiate'', ''American Heritage'').
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
| 翻訳と辞書 : 翻訳のためのインターネットリソース|
Copyright(C) kotoba.ne.jp 1997-2016. All Rights Reserved.