| FSI_year = 2007
| FSI_rank = 16th
| FSI_category = Alert
| ECI =
| ECI_year = 2008
| ECI_rank =
| sovereignty_type = Independence
| established_event1 = from the United Kingdom
| established_date1 = 9 October 1962
| established_event2 = Current constitution
| established_date2 = 8 October 1995
| currency = Ugandan shilling
| currency_code = UGX
| time_zone = EAT
| drives_on = left
| calling_code = +256a
| cctld = .ug
| footnote_a = +006 from Kenya and Tanzania.
Uganda ( or ), officially the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East Africa. It is bordered to the east by Kenya, to the north by South Sudan, to the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the southwest by Rwanda, and to the south by Tanzania. Uganda is the world's second most populous landlocked country after Ethiopia. The southern part of the country includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, shared with Kenya and Tanzania, situating the country in the African Great Lakes region. Uganda also lies within the Nile basin, and has a varied but generally a modified equatorial climate.
Uganda takes its name from the Buganda kingdom, which encompasses a large portion of the south of the country including the capital Kampala. The people of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago, when Bantu-speaking populations migrated to the southern parts of the country.
Beginning in 1894, the area was ruled as a protectorate by the British, who established administrative law across the territory. Uganda gained independence from Britain on 9 October 1962. The period since then has been marked by intermittent conflicts, most recently a lengthy civil war against the Lord's Resistance Army, which has caused tens of thousands of casualties and displaced more than a million people.
The official languages are Swahili and English. Luganda, a central language, is widely spoken across the country, and multiple other languages are also spoken including Runyoro, Runyankole Rukiga, Langi and many others. The current President of Uganda is Yoweri Kaguta Museveni who came to power in January 1986 after a protracted six-year guerrilla war.
The ancestors of the Ugandans were hunter-gatherers until 1,700-2,300 years ago. Bantu-speaking populations, who were probably from central Africa, migrated to the southern parts of the country.〔(【引用サイトリンク】 East Africa Living Encyclopedia – Ethnic Groups )〕〔Martin, Phyllis and O'Meara, Patrick (1995). ''Africa''. 3rd edition. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253209846.〕 These groups brought and developed ironworking skills and new ideas of social and political organisation.
According to oral tradition, the Empire of Kitara covered an important part of the great lakes area, from the northern lakes Albert and Kyoga, to the southern lakes, Victoria and Tanganyika.
Bunyoro-Kitara is claimed as the antecedent of later kingdoms: Buganda, Toro, Ankole, and Busoga.
The Luo invasion is believed to have led to the collapse of the Chwezi Empire. The twins Rukidi Mpuuga and Kato Kintu are believed to be the first kings of Bunyonro and Buganda after the Chwezi Empire collapsed, creating the Babiito and Bambejja Dynasty. Some Luo invaded the area of Bunyoro and assimilated with the Bantu there, establishing the Babiito dynasty of the current ''Omukama'' (ruler) of Bunyoro-Kitara.〔, bunyoro-kitara.com.〕
Luo migration continued until the 16th century, with some Luo settling amid Bantu people in eastern Uganda, with others proceeding to the eastern shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya and Tanzania. The Ateker (Karimojong and Iteso) settled in the northeastern and eastern parts of the country, and some fused with the Luo in the area north of Lake Kyoga.
Arab traders moved inland from the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa in the 1830s. They were followed in the 1860s by British explorers searching for the source of the Nile.〔Stanley, H.M., 1899, Through the Dark Continent, London: G. Newnes, ISBN 0486256677〕 British Anglican missionaries arrived in the kingdom of Buganda in 1877, (a situation which gave rise to the death of the Uganda Martyrs) and followed by French Catholic missionaries in 1879.〔("Background Note: Uganda" ), U.S. State Department〕 The British government chartered the Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEAC) to negotiate trade agreements in the region from 1888. From 1886, there were a series of religious wars in Buganda, initially between Muslims and Christians and then, from 1890, between ba-Ingleza Protestants and ba-Fransa Catholics. Because of civil unrest and financial burdens, IBEAC claimed that it was unable to "maintain their occupation" in the region.〔Sir J. H. Kennaway in ''Address In Answer To Her Majesty's Most Gracious Speech - Adjourned Debate''. H.C. Debate 06 February 1893, vol 8, cc562-563, available at Hansard ().〕 British commercial interests were ardent to protect the trade route of the Nile, which prompted the British government to annex Buganda and adjoining territories to create the Uganda Protectorate in 1894.〔
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』