Troy (, ''Ilion'', or , ''Ilios''; and , ''Troia''; (ラテン語:Trōia) and ラテン語:''Īlium'';〔''Trōia'' is the typical Latin name for the city. ''Ilium'' is a more poetic term: 〕 Hittite: ''Wilusa'' or ''Truwisa''; (トルコ語:Truva)) was a city situated in what is known from Classical sources as Asia Minor, now northwest Anatolia in modern Turkey, located south of the southwest end of the Dardanelles/Hellespont and northwest of Mount Ida at Hisarlık. It is the setting of the Trojan War described in the Greek Epic Cycle and especially in the ''Iliad'', one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. Metrical evidence from the ''Iliad'' and the ''Odyssey'' seems to show that the name (''Ilion'') formerly began with a digamma: (''Wilion''). This was later supported by the Hittite form Wilusa.
A new capital called Ilium was founded on the site in the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus. It flourished until the establishment of Constantinople and declined gradually during the Byzantine era.
In 1865, English archaeologist Frank Calvert excavated trial trenches in a field he had bought from a local farmer at Hisarlık, and in 1868, Heinrich Schliemann, a wealthy German businessman and archaeologist, also began excavating in the area after a chance meeting with Calvert in Çanakkale.〔.〕 These excavations revealed several cities built in succession. Schliemann was at first skeptical about the identification of Hisarlik with Troy, but was persuaded by Calvert and took over Calvert's excavations on the eastern half of the Hisarlik site, which was on Calvert's property. Troy VII has been identified with the Hittite city Wilusa, the probable origin of the Greek Ἴλιον, and is generally (but not conclusively) identified with Homeric Troy.
Today, the hill at Hisarlik has given its name to a small village near the ruins, supporting the tourist trade visiting the Troia archaeological site. It lies within the province of Çanakkale, some 30 km south-west of the provincial capital, also called Çanakkale. The nearest village is Tevfikiye. The map here shows the adapted Scamander estuary with Ilium a little way inland across the Homeric plain.
Troia was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998.
Ancient Greek historians variously placed the Trojan War in the 12th, 13th, or 14th centuries BC: Eratosthenes to 1184 BC, Herodotus to 1250 BC, Duris of Samos to 1334 BC. Modern archaeologists associate Homeric Troy with archaeological Troy VII.〔.〕
In the ''Iliad'', the Achaeans set up their camp near the mouth of the River Scamander (presumably modern Karamenderes), where they had beached their ships. The city of Troy itself stood on a hill, across the plain of Scamander, where the battles of the Trojan War took place. The site of the ancient city is some 5 km from the coast today, but the ancient mouths of Scamander, some 3,000 years ago, were about that distance inland,〔Strabo, ''Geography'' XIII, I, 36, tr. H. L. Jones, Loeb Classical Library; Pliny, ''Natural History'', V.33, tr. H. Rackham, W. S. Jones and D. E. Eichholz, Loeb Classical Library.〕 pouring into a large bay forming a natural harbour that has since been filled with alluvial material. Recent geological findings have permitted the reconstruction of how the original Trojan coastline would have looked, and the results largely confirm the accuracy of the Homeric geography of Troy.〔(Geologists investigate Trojan battlefield ), 7 February 2003, BBC NEWS〕
In November 2001, geologists John C. Kraft from the University of Delaware and John V. Luce from Trinity College, Dublin, presented the results of investigations, begun in 1977, into the geology of the region. They compared the present geology with the landscapes and coastal features described in the ''Iliad'' and other classical sources, notably Strabo's ''Geographia'', and concluded that there is a regular consistency between the location of Schliemann's Troy and other locations such as the Greek camp, the geological evidence, descriptions of the topography and accounts of the battle in the ''Iliad''.〔(Harbor areas at ancient Troy: Sedimentology and geomorphology complement Homer's Iliad ), Geoscience World (abstract)〕〔(Press Release: Geology corresponds with Homer’s description of ancient Troy ), University of Delaware〕
Besides the ''Iliad'', there are references to Troy in the other major work attributed to Homer, the ''Odyssey'', as well as in other ancient Greek literature (like Aeschylus' Oresteia). The Homeric legend of Troy was elaborated by the Roman poet Virgil in his ''Aeneid''. The Greeks and Romans took for a fact the historicity of the Trojan War and the identity of Homeric Troy with the site in Anatolia. Alexander the Great, for example, visited the site in 334 BC and made sacrifices at tombs there associated with the Homeric heroes Achilles and Patroclus.
After the 1995 find of a Luwian biconvex seal at Troy VII, there has been a heated discussion over the language that was spoken in Homeric Troy. Frank Starke of the University of Tübingen recently demonstrated that the name of Priam, king of Troy at the time of the Trojan War, is connected to the Luwian compound ''Priimuua'', which means "exceptionally courageous". "The certainty is growing that Wilusa/Troy belonged to the greater Luwian-speaking community," although it is not entirely clear whether Luwian was primarily the official language or in daily colloquial use.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』