Odessa or Odesa ((ウクライナ語:Оде́са), (:oˈdɛsɐ); ) is the fourth largest city in Ukraine with a population of 1,003,705. The city is a major seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea. Odessa is also an administrative center of the Odessa Oblast and a multiethnic major cultural center.
The predecessor of Odessa, a small Tatar settlement, was founded by Hacı I Giray, the Khan of Crimea, in 1440 and originally named after him as "Hacıbey". After a period of Lithuanian control, it passed into the domain of the Ottoman Sultan in 1529 and remained in Ottoman hands until the Ottoman Empire's defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1792.
In 1794, the city of Odessa was founded by a decree of the Empress Catherine the Great. From 1819 to 1858, Odessa was a free port. During the Soviet period it was the most important port of trade in the Soviet Union and a Soviet naval base. On 1 January 2000, the Quarantine Pier at Odessa Commercial Sea Port was declared a free port and free economic zone for a period of 25 years.
During the 19th century, it was the fourth largest city of Imperial Russia, after Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Warsaw. Its historical architecture has a style more Mediterranean than Russian, having been heavily influenced by French and Italian styles. Some buildings are built in a mixture of different styles, including Art Nouveau, Renaissance and Classicist.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Odessa: Architecture and Monuments )〕
Odessa is a warm water port. The city of Odessa hosts two important ports: Port of Odessa itself and Port Yuzhne (also an internationally important oil terminal), situated in the city's suburbs. Another important port, Illichivsk, is located in the same oblast, to the south-west of Odessa. Together they represent a major transport hub integrating with railways. Odessa's oil and chemical processing facilities are connected to Russia's and EU's respective networks by strategic pipelines.
== Name ==
The city was named in compliance with the Greek Plan of Catherine the Great. It was named after the ancient Greek city of Odessos (Ὀδησσός), which was mistakenly believed to have been located here. Although Odessa is located in between the ancient Greek cities of Tyras (Τύρας) and Olbia (Ὀλβία), Odessos is believed to be the predecessor of the present day city of Varna, Bulgaria.〔https://books.google.com/books?id=LcfLKHVi2UUC&pg=PA254〕
Catherine's secretary of state (кабинет-секретарь) claimed in his memoirs that the name was his suggestion. Some expressed doubts about this claim, while others noted the reputation of Gribovsky as an honest and modest man.〔("Odesa: Through Cossacks, Khans and Russian Emperors" ), ''The Ukrainian Week'',
November 18, 2014 (retrieved August 2, 2015)〕
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』