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New Zealand
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New Zealand : ウィキペディア英語版
New Zealand

|capital = Wellington
|latd=41 |latm=17 |latNS=S |longd=174 |longm=27 |longEW=E
|largest_city = Auckland
|official_languages =

| 4.2% Māori
|ethnic_groups =
| ethnic_groups_year = 2013
|demonym = New Zealander

|government_type = Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
|leader_title1 = Monarch
|leader_name1 = Elizabeth II
|leader_title2 =
|leader_name2 = Jerry Mateparae
|leader_title3 = Prime Minister
|leader_name3 = John Key
|legislature = Parliament

|sovereignty_type = Independence
|sovereignty_note = from the United Kingdom
|established_event1 =
|established_date1 = 7 May 1856
|established_event2 =
|established_date2 = 26 September 1907
|established_event3 = Statute of Westminster adopted
|established_date3 = 25 November 1947
|established_event4 =
|established_date4 = 10 December 1947
|area_rank = 75th
|area_magnitude = 1 E11
|area_km2 = 268,021
|area_sq_mi = 103,483
|percent_water = 1.6
|population_estimate =4,596,700
|population_estimate_year = June 2015
|population_estimate_rank = 123rd
|population_census = 4,242,048
|population_census_year = 2013
|population_density_km2 = /268021|1}}
|population_density_sq_mi = /103483|1}}
|population_density_rank = 205th
|GDP_PPP = $165.987 billion〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=New Zealand )
|GDP_PPP_rank =
|GDP_PPP_year = 2015
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $35,966〔
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank =
|GDP_nominal = $170.59 billion〔
|GDP_nominal_rank =
|GDP_nominal_year = 2015
|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $36,964〔
|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank =
|Gini_year = 2010
|Gini_change =
|Gini = 0.32
|Gini_ref =
|Gini_rank =
|HDI_year = 2013
|HDI_change = steady
|HDI = 0.910
|HDI_ref =
|HDI_rank = 7th
|currency = New Zealand dollar ($)
|currency_code = NZD
|country_code = NZ
|time_zone = NZST
|utc_offset = +12
|time_zone_DST = NZDT
|utc_offset_DST = +13
|DST_note = (Sep to Apr)
|date_format= dd/mm/yyyy
|drives_on = left
|calling_code = +64
|cctld = .nz
New Zealand ( , (マオリ語:Aotearoa) (:aɔˈtɛaɾɔa)) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses – that of the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu – and numerous smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long isolation, New Zealand developed a distinctive biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland.
Polynesians settled in the islands that were to become New Zealand somewhere between 1250 and 1300 CE, and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Abel Tasman, a Dutch explorer, became the first European to sight New Zealand.〔(History of New Zealand ). Newzealand.com.〕 In 1840, representatives of the British Crown and Māori Chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, making New Zealand a British colony. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.5 million is of European descent; the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is mainly derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, with English predominant.
New Zealand is a developed country with a market economy that is dominated by the exports of dairy products, meat and wine, along with tourism. New Zealand is a high-income economy and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, education, economic freedom and quality of life. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the Prime Minister, who is currently John Key. Queen Elizabeth II is the country's head of state and is represented by a Governor-General. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes. The Realm of New Zealand also includes Tokelau (a dependent territory); the Cook Islands and Niue (self-governing states in free association with New Zealand); and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it ''Staten Landt'', supposing it was connected to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America. In 1645 Dutch cartographers renamed the land ''Nova Zeelandia'' after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand.
''Aotearoa'' (often translated as "land of the long white cloud") is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with ''Aotearoa'' originally referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including ''Te Ika-a-Māui'' (the fish of Māui) for the North Island and ''Te Waipounamu'' (the waters of greenstone) or ''Te Waka o Aoraki'' (the canoe of Aoraki) for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North (North Island), Middle (South Island) and South (Stewart Island / Rakiura). In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, and names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu. Note that for each island, either its English or Māori name can be used, or both can be used together.
New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands. Over the centuries that followed these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into ''iwi'' (tribes) and ''hapū'' (subtribes) who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight with each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to the Chatham Islands (which they named ''Rēkohu'') where they developed their distinct Moriori culture. The Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862, largely because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases also contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived and the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933.
The first Europeans known to have reached New Zealand were Dutch explorer Abel Tasman and his crew in 1642. In a hostile encounter, four crew members were killed and at least one Māori was hit by canister shot. Europeans did not revisit New Zealand until 1769 when British explorer James Cook mapped almost the entire coastline. Following Cook, New Zealand was visited by numerous European and North American whaling, sealing and trading ships. They traded food, metal tools, weapons and other goods for timber, food, artifacts and water. The introduction of the potato and the musket transformed Māori agriculture and warfare. Potatoes provided a reliable food surplus, which enabled longer and more sustained military campaigns. The resulting intertribal Musket Wars encompassed over 600 battles between 1801 and 1840, killing 30,000–40,000 Māori. From the early 19th century, Christian missionaries began to settle New Zealand, eventually converting most of the Māori population. The Māori population declined to around 40 percent of its pre-contact level during the 19th century; introduced diseases were the major factor.
In 1788 Captain Arthur Phillip assumed the position of Governor of the new British colony of New South Wales which according to his commission included New Zealand. The British Government appointed James Busby as British Resident to New Zealand in 1832 following a petition from northern Māori.〔 In 1835, following an announcement of impending French settlement by Charles de Thierry, the nebulous United Tribes of New Zealand sent a Declaration of the Independence to King William IV of the United Kingdom asking for protection. Ongoing unrest, the proposed settlement of New Zealand by the New Zealand Company (which had already sent its first ship of surveyors to buy land from Māori) and the dubious legal standing of the Declaration of Independence prompted the Colonial Office to send Captain William Hobson to claim sovereignty for Great Britain and negotiate a treaty with the Māori. The Treaty of Waitangi was first signed in the Bay of Islands on 6 February 1840. In response to the New Zealand Company's attempts to establish an independent settlement in Wellington and French settlers purchasing land in Akaroa, Hobson declared British sovereignty over all of New Zealand on 21 May 1840, even though copies of the Treaty were still circulating throughout the country for Māori to sign. With the signing of the Treaty and declaration of sovereignty the number of immigrants, particularly from the United Kingdom, began to increase.
New Zealand, still part of the colony of New South Wales, became a separate Colony of New Zealand on 1 July 1841. The colony gained a representative government in 1852 and the first Parliament met in 1854. In 1856 the colony effectively became self-governing, gaining responsibility over all domestic matters other than native policy. (Control over native policy was granted in the mid-1860s.)〔 Following concerns that the South Island might form a separate colony, premier Alfred Domett moved a resolution to transfer the capital from Auckland to a locality near the Cook Strait. Wellington was chosen for its harbour and central location, with parliament officially sitting there for the first time in 1865. As immigrant numbers increased, conflicts over land led to the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s and 1870s, resulting in the loss and confiscation of much Māori land.
In 1891 the Liberal Party led by John Ballance came to power as the first organised political party. The Liberal Government, later led by Richard Seddon, passed many important social and economic measures. In 1893 New Zealand was the first nation in the world to grant all women the right to vote and in 1894 pioneered the adoption of compulsory arbitration between employers and unions. In 1898 Seddon's government passed the Old-age Pensions Act of 1898, the first general pensions scheme in the British Empire.
In 1907, at the request of the New Zealand Parliament, King Edward VII proclaimed New Zealand a dominion within the British Empire, reflecting its self-governing status. Accordingly, the title "Dominion of New Zealand" dates from 1907.〔''Commonwealth and Colonial Law'' by Kenneth Roberts-Wray, London, Stevens, 1966. P. 888〕〔Proclamation of 9 September 1907, S.R.O. Rev. XVI, 867.〕
In 1947 the country adopted the Statute of Westminster, confirming that the British parliament could no longer legislate for New Zealand without the consent of New Zealand.〔 New Zealand was involved in world affairs, fighting, as part of the British Empire, in the First and Second World Wars〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=War and Society )〕 and suffering through the Great Depression. The depression led to the election of the first Labour government and the establishment of a comprehensive welfare state and a protectionist economy. New Zealand experienced increasing prosperity following World War II and Māori began to leave their traditional rural life and move to the cities in search of work. A Māori protest movement developed, which criticised Eurocentrism and worked for greater recognition of Māori culture and the Treaty of Waitangi. In 1975, a Waitangi Tribunal was set up to investigate alleged breaches of the Treaty, and it was enabled to investigate historic grievances in 1985.〔 The government has negotiated settlements of these grievances with many iwi, although Māori claims to the foreshore and seabed have proved controversial in the 2000s.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)
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