In New Zealand society, ''iwi'' ((:ˈiwi)) form the largest social units in Māori culture. The word ''iwi'' means "'peoples' or 'nations',〔Back cover: Ballara, A. (1998). ''Iwi: The dynamics of Māori tribal organisation from c.1769 to c.1945''. Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University Press.〕〔See also: Durie, A. (1999). Emancipatory Māori education: Speaking from the heart. In S. May (Ed.), ''Indigenous community education'' (pp. 67-78). Philadelphia, PA: Multilingual Matters.〕〔See also: Healey, S. M. (2006). ''The nature of the relationship of the Crown in New Zealand with iwi Māori''. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Auckland, New Zealand.〕〔See also: Sharp, A. (1999). What if value and rights lie foundationally in groups? The Maori case. ''Critical Review of International, Social and Political Philosophy'', ''2''(2), 1–28.〕 and is often translated as "tribe",〔Taylor, R. (1848). ''A leaf from the natural history of New Zealand, or, A vocabulary of its different productions, &c., &c., with their native names''. Retrieved from ()〕〔White, J. (1887). ''The ancient history of the Maori, his mythology and traditions''. Retrieved from ()〕〔Smith, S. P. (1910). ''Maori wars of the nineteenth century; the struggle of the northern against the southern Maori tribes prior to the colonisation of New Zealand in 1840''. Retrieved from ()〕〔Best, E. (1934). ''The Maori as he was: A brief account of Maori life as it was in pre-European days''. Retrieved from ()〕〔( Buck, P. (1949). ''The coming of the Maori''. Retrieved from )〕 or confederation of tribes.
Most Māori in pre-European times gave their primary allegiance to relatively small groups such as ''hapū'' ("sub-tribe"〔Ballara (1998, p. 17)〕) and ''whānau'' ("family"〔Ballara (1998, p. 164)〕).
== Naming ==
In Māori, as well as in many other Polynesian languages, ''iwi'' literally means "bone". Māori may refer to returning home after travelling or living elsewhere as "going back to the bones" — literally to the burial-areas of the ancestors. Māori author Keri Hulme's novel, ''The Bone People'' (1985), has a title linked directly to the dual meaning of bone and "tribal people". (It won the Booker Prize.)
Many names of iwi begin with ''Ngāti'' or with ''Ngāi'' (from ''ngā āti'' and ''ngā ai'', both meaning roughly "the offspring of"). ''Ngāti'' has become a productive morpheme in New Zealand English to refer to groups of people: examples are Ngāti Pākehā (Pākehā as a group), Ngāti Poneke (Māori who have migrated into the Wellington region), and Ngāti Rānana (Māori living in London). Ngāti Tūmatauenga, "Tribe of Tūmatauenga" (the god of war), is the official Māori-language name of the New Zealand Army.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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