|population_density_rank = 30th
|GDP_PPP_year = 2015
|GDP_PPP = $831.411 billion〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Netherlands )〕
|GDP_PPP_rank = 17th
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $49,094
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 15th
|GDP_nominal = $750.782 billion〔
|GDP_nominal_rank = 17th
|GDP_nominal_year = 2015
|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $44,333
|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 15th
|sovereignty_type = Independence
|established_event1 = Proclaimed
|established_date1 = 26 July 1581
|established_event2 = Recognised
|established_date2 = 30 January 1648
|established_event3 = Kingdom established
|established_date3 = 16 March 1815
|established_event4 = Constituent country
|established_date4 = 15 December 1954
|Gini_year = 2014
|Gini = 26.2
|Gini_ref = 〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_di12 )〕
|Gini_rank = 111th
|HDI_year = 2013
|HDI_change = steady
|HDI = 0.915
|HDI_rank = 4th
|currency = }}
|country_code = NLD
|time_zone = CET (UTC+1)
|time_zone_DST = CEST (UTC+2)
|drives_on = right
|iso3166code = NL
|date_format = dd-mm-yyyy
|cctld = .nl, .bq
| footnote_a = The official motto is in French. The literal translation into English is "I will maintain"; a better translation, however, is "I will hold firm" or "I will uphold" (namely, the integrity and independence of the territory).
| footnote_b = While Amsterdam is the constitutional capital, The Hague is the seat of the government.
| footnote_c = West Frisian (Friesland), Papiamento (Bonaire) and English (Sint Eustatius and Saba)〔 have a formal status in certain parts of the country. Dutch Low Saxon and Limburgish are recognised as regional languages by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.
| footnote_d = The euro is used in the European Netherlands and replaced the Dutch guilder in 2002. The US dollar is used in the Caribbean Netherlands and replaced the Netherlands Antillean guilder in 2011.
| footnote_e = CET and CEST are used in the European Netherlands, and AST is used in the Caribbean Netherlands.
| footnote_f = 599 was the country code designated for the now dissolved Netherlands Antilles. The Caribbean Netherlands still use 599-7 (Bonaire), 599-3 (Sint Eustatius) and 599-4 (Saba).
| footnote_g = .nl is the common internet top level domain name for the Netherlands. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. .bq is designated, but not in use, for the Caribbean Netherlands.}}
The Netherlands (; (オランダ語:Nederland) ) is the main "constituent country" ((オランダ語:land)) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a small, densely populated country located in Western Europe with three island territories in the Caribbean.〔designated Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba within ISO (ISO 3166-1 ).〕 The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing maritime borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom and Germany.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Netherlands boundaries in the North Sea )〕 The largest and most important cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague and Rotterdam. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of government and parliament.〔(【引用サイトリンク】author=Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the UN )〕 The port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe – as large as the next three largest combined - and was the world's largest port between 1962 and 2004.
The Netherlands' name literally means "Lower Countries", influenced by its low land and flat geography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding one metre above sea level. Most of the areas below sea level are man-made. Since the late 16th century, large areas (polders) have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, amounting to nearly 17% of the country's current land mass.
With a population density of 408 people per km2 – 500 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is a very densely populated country for its size. Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a larger population and a higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, after the United States.〔(Netherlands: Agricultural exports top 80 billion Euros )〕〔(Holland is world-leading exporter of agri-food products )〕 This is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate.
The Netherlands was the third country in the world to have an elected parliament, and since 1848 it has been governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, organised as a unitary state. The Netherlands has a long history of social tolerance and is generally regarded as a liberal country, having legalised abortion, prostitution and euthanasia, while maintaining a progressive drugs policy. In 2001, it became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage.
The Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, and a part of the trilateral Benelux Union. The country is host to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and five international courts: the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the International Court of Justice, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Court and the Special Tribunal for Lebanon. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EU's criminal intelligence agency Europol and judicial co-operation agency Eurojust. This has led to the city being dubbed "the world's legal capital".〔, specifically, ''"In the 1990s, during his term as United Nations Secretary-General, Boutros Boutros-Ghali started calling The Hague the world's legal capital."''〕 The Netherlands is also a part of the Schengen Area.
The Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom.〔, Index of Economic Freedom. heritage.org〕 It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund. In 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands in its entirety is often referred to by the much older designation "Holland" (meaning ''holt land'', or wood land), though in a strict sense this refers only to North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces, formerly a single province and earlier the County of Holland. This originally Frankish county emerged from the dissolved Frisian Kingdom and was economically and politically the most important county in the region. Because of this importance, Holland served as a ''pars pro toto'' for the entire country, and is considered either incorrect〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=The BBC News Styleguide )〕 or informal, depending on the context, but is more acceptable when referring to the national football team.
Place names with ''Neder'' (or ''lage''), ''Nieder'', ''Nether'' (or ''low'') and ''Nedre'' are in use in various places in countries where a Germanic language is spoken, and has in French and Latin its respective counterparts in ''Bas'' or ''Inferior''. They are sometimes used in relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as ''Upper'', ''Boven'', ''Oben'', ''Superior'' or ''Haut''. In the case of the Low Countries the geographical location of the ''lower'' region has been more or less downstream and near the sea, the geographical location of the upper region changed over time tremendously. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior (nowadays part of Belgium and the Netherlands) and upstream Germania Superior (nowadays part of Germany). The designation 'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries.〔(【引用サイトリンク】 title=Lotharingia / Lorraine ( Lothringen ) )〕 But this time the corresponding ''Upper'' region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France. The Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term ''les pays de par deçà'' (~ the lands over here) for the Low Countries as opposed to ''les pays de par delà'' (~ the lands over there) for their original homeland: Burgundy in present-day east-central France.〔https://books.google.nl/books?id=0Foy9GGgdcgC&pg=PA85&dq=duke+pays+de+par+deçà&hl=nl&sa=X&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAWoVChMIs5LjwoHJxwIVgjkaCh1JGgSb#v=onepage&q=duke%20pays%20de%20par%20deçà&f=false〕
Under Habsburg rule, ''Les pays de par deçà'' developed in ''pays d'embas'' (lands down-here),〔https://books.google.nl/books?id=59Pae06JSiUC&lpg=PP1&dq=The%20New%20Cambridge%20Modern%20History%3A%20Volume%202%2C%20The%20Reformation%2C%201520-1559&hl=nl&pg=PA342#v=onepage&q=The%20New%20Cambridge%20Modern%20History:%20Volume%202,%20The%20Reformation,%201520-1559&f=false〕 a deixic expression in relation to other Habsburg possessions in Europe. This was translated as ''Neder-landen'' in contemporary Dutch official documents. However, ''Niderlant'' was also the region between the Meuse and the lower Rhine in the late Middle Ages. The area known as ''Oberland'' (High country) was in this deixic context considered to begin approximately at the nearby higher located Cologne.
From the mid-sixteenth century on, ''the Low Countries'' or "the Netherlands" was – besides Flanders – probably the most commonly used name. The Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces (''Belgica Foederata'' in Latin, the "Federated Netherlands") and the Southern Netherlands (''Belgica Regia'', the "Royal Netherlands"). The Low Countries today is a designation that includes the countries the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. It is used synonymous with the more neutral and geopolitical term Benelux.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』