The Franks ((ラテン語:Franci) or ''ラテン語:gens Francorum'') are historically first known as a group of Germanic tribes that roamed the land between the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, and second as the people of Gaul who merged with the Gallo-Roman populations during succeeding centuries, passing on their name to modern-day France and becoming part of the heritage of the modern day French people. Some Franks raided Roman territory, while other Frankish tribes joined the Roman troops of Gaul. In later times, Franks became the military rulers of the northern part of Roman Gaul. With the coronation of their ruler Charlemagne as ''ラテン語:Imperator Romanorum'' by Pope Leo III in 800 AD, he and his successors were recognised as legitimate successors to the emperors of the Western Roman Empire. In this way, Romance speakers came to be seen as "Franks" in some contexts.
The Salian Franks lived on Roman-held soil between the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse rivers in what is now Northern France, Belgium and the southern Netherlands. The kingdom was acknowledged by the Romans after 357 AD. Following the collapse of Rome in the West, the Frankish tribes were united under the Merovingians, who succeeded in conquering most of Gaul in the 6th century. The Franks became very powerful after this. The Merovingian dynasty, descendants of the Salians, founded one of the Germanic monarchies that would absorb large parts of the Western Roman Empire. The Frankish state consolidated its hold over the majority of western Europe by the end of the 8th century, developing into the Carolingian Empire. This empire would gradually evolve into the state of France and the Holy Roman Empire.
In the Middle Ages, the term ''Frank'' was used in the east as a synonym for ''western European'', as the Franks were then rulers of most of Western Europe. The Franks in the east kept their Germanic language and became part of the Germans, Dutch, Belgians and Luxembourgers. The Franconian languages, which are called ' in Dutch or ''ドイツ語:Fränkisch'' in German, originated at least partly in the Old Frankish language of the Franks. Nowadays, the German and Dutch names for France are ''ドイツ語:Frankreich'' and ' both meaning "Realm of the Franks".
== Name ==
(詳細はCelts, and Suebi, the Franks must have seemed alike: they looked the same and spoke the same language, so that ''ラテン語:Franci'' became the name by which the people were known. Within a few centuries it had eclipsed the names of the original tribes, though the older names have survived in some place-names, such as Hesse, which originates from the Chatti tribe. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm,〔.〕 the name of the Franks has been linked with the word ''frank'' in English.〔Examples: And so on.〕 It has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation. It is traditionally assumed that Frank comes from the Germanic word for "javelin" (such as in Old English ' or Old Norse ').〔(Online Etymology Dictionary entries for "frank" )〕 There is also another theory that suggests that Frank comes from the Latin word ''ラテン語:francisca'' meaning ("throwing axe"). Words in other Germanic languages meaning "fierce", "bold" or "insolent" (German ''ドイツ語:frech'', Middle Dutch ', Old English ' and Old Norwegian '), may also be significant.
Eumenius addressed the Franks in the matter of the execution of Frankish prisoners in the circus at Trier by Constantine I in 306 and certain other measures:〔Panegyric on Constantine, xi.〕〔.〕 ''ラテン語:Ubi nunc est illa ferocia? Ubi semper infida mobilitas?'' ("Where now is that ferocity of yours? Where is that ever untrustworthy fickleness?"). ''ラテン語:Feroces'' was used often to describe the Franks.〔.〕 Contemporary definitions of Frankish ethnicity vary both by period and point of view. A formulary written by Marculf about 700 AD described a continuation of national identities within a mixed population when it stated that "all the peoples who dwell (the official's province ), Franks, Romans, Burgundians and those of other nations, live ... according to their law and their custom."〔.〕 Writing in 2009, Professor Christopher Wickham pointed out that "the word 'Frankish' quickly ceased to have an exclusive ethnic connotation. North of the River Loire everyone seems to have been considered a Frank by the mid-7th century at the latest; Romani were essentially the inhabitants of Aquitaine after that".
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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