The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (, ''Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del''), abbreviated NKVD ( ), was a law enforcement agency of the Soviet Union that directly executed the rule of power of the All Union Communist Party. It was closely associated with the Soviet secret police, which at times was part of the agency, and is known for its political repression during the era of Joseph Stalin.
The NKVD contained the regular, public police force of the USSR, including traffic police, firefighting, border guards and archives. It is best known for the activities of the Gulag and the Main Directorate for State Security (GUGB), the predecessor of the KGB. The NKVD conducted mass extrajudicial executions, ran the Gulag system of forced labor camps and suppressed underground resistance, and was also responsible for mass deportations of entire nationalities and Kulaks to unpopulated regions of the country. It was also tasked with protection of Soviet borders and espionage, which included political assassinations abroad, influencing foreign governments and enforcing Stalinist policy within communist movements in other countries.
== History and structure ==
After the Russian February Revolution of 1917, the Provisional Government dissolved the Tsar's police and created ''People's Militsiya''. The subsequent Russian October Revolution of 1917, was a seizure of state power led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks, who established a new Bolshevik regime, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), and the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) turned into NKVD ("People's" Commissariat of Internal Affairs) under a "People's" Commissar. However, the NKVD apparatus was overwhelmed by duties inherited from MVD, such as the supervision of the local governments and firefighting, and the ''Workers' and Peasants' Militsiya'' staffed by proletarians was largely inexperienced and unqualified. Realizing that it was left with no capable security force, the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR created a secret political police, the ''Cheka'', led by Felix Dzerzhinsky. It gained the right to undertake quick non-judicial trials and executions, if that was deemed necessary in order to "protect the Russian Socialist-Communist revolution".
The ''Cheka'' was reorganized in 1922 as the State Political Directorate, or GPU, of the NKVD of the RSFSR.〔Blank Pages by G.C.Malcher ISBN 1-897984-00-6 Page 7〕 In 1922, the USSR was formed with the RSFSR as its largest member. The GPU became the OGPU (Joint State Political Directorate), under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR. The NKVD of the RSFSR retained control of the ''militsiya'', and various other responsibilities.
In 1934, the NKVD of the RSFSR was transformed into an all-union security force, the NKVD of the USSR (which the Communist Party of the Soviet Union leaders soon came to call "the leading detachment of our party"), and the OGPU was incorporated into the NKVD as the Main Directorate for State Security (GUGB); the separate NKVD of the RSFSR was not resurrected until 1946 (as the MVD of the RSFSR). As a result, the NKVD also became responsible for all detention facilities (including the forced labor camps, known as the GULag) as well as for the regular police.〔At various times, the NKVD had the following Chief Directorates, abbreviated as "ГУ"– .
:ГУГБ – государственной безопасности, of State Security ()
:ГУРКМ– рабоче-крестьянской милиции, of Workers and Peasants ''Militsiya'' ()
:ГУПВО– пограничной и внутренней охраны, of Border and Internal Guards ()
:ГУПО– пожарной охраны, of Fire Guards ()
:ГУШосДор– шоссейных дорог, of HighWays ()
:ГУЖД– железных дорог, of RailWays ()
:ГУЛаг– Главное управление исправительно-трудовых лагерей и колоний, ()
:ГЭУ – экономическое, of Economics ()
:ГТУ – транспортное, of Transport ()
:ГУВПИ – военнопленных и интернированных, of POWs and interned persons ()〕 Until the reorganization begun by Nikolai Yezhov with a purge of the regional political police in the autumn of 1936 and formalized by a May 1939 directive of the All-Union NKVD by which all appointments to the local political police were controlled from the center, there was frequent tension between centralized control of local units and the collusion of those units with local and regional party elements, frequently resulting in the thwarting of Moscow's plans.〔James Harris, "(Dual subordination ? The political police and the party in the Urals region, 1918–1953 )", ''Cahiers du monde russe'' 22 (2001):423–446.〕
Since its creation in 1934, the NKVD of the USSR underwent many organizational changes; between 1938 and 1939 alone, the NKVD's structure changed three times.〔
NKVD Organization in 1939
* People's Commissar for Internal Affairs– Lavrenty Beria
* First Deputy and the head of Main Directorate of State Security (GUGB)– Vsevolod Merkulov
* for NKVD troops– Ivan Maslenikov
* for ''Militsiya''– Vasyli Chernyshov
* for Staff– Sergei Kruglov
* NKVD Secretariat– Stepan Mamulov
* Secretariat of Special Council of the NKVD– Vladimir Ivanov
* Special Technical Bureau– Valentin Kravchenko
* Special Bureau– Pyotr Scharia
* NKVD Inspection Group– Nikolai Pavlov
* Special Plenipotentiary– Aleksei Stefanov
* Secretariat of the First Deputy for GUGB Task– Vsevolod Merkulov
* Inspection Group– Vsevolod Merkulov
* Special Secretariat– Vasyli Chernyshov
* Section for Organization of Labor Force– Vsevolod Merkulov
* Permanent Technical Committee– ?
* Section for Repair Work– Pyotr Vainschtein
* Supply Section– M. Mituschyn
* Department of Railroad Transportation and Water– ?
Directorates and departments
* Main Directorate of State Security (GUGB)– Vsevolod Merkulov
* 1st Special Department– Leonid Baschtakov
* 2nd Special Department– Evgeny Lapishin
* 3rd Special Department– Dmitry Shadrin
* 4th Special Department– Mikhail Filimonov
* 5th Special Department– Vladimir Vladimirov
* Department of Mobilization– Ivan Scherediega
* Department of Staff– Sergei Kruglov
* The Chief Directorate of Economics (GEU)– Bogdan Kobulov
* The Chief Directorate of Transportation (GTU)– Solomon Milshtein
* The Chief Directorate of Prison (GTU)– Aleksandr Galkin
* The Chief Directorate of Administration (AČU)– J.Schumbatov
* The Chief Directorate of Archive (GAU)– Yosif Nikitynsky
* The Chief Directorate of fire guards (GUPO)– Nikolay Istomin
* The Chief Directorate of ''Militsiya'' (GURKM)– Pavel Zujev
* The Chief Directorate (Administration ) of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies (GULAG)– Vasyli Chernyshov
* The Chief Directorate of Highways (GUŠOSDOR)– Vsevolod Fedotov
* Directorate of Kremlin Commander– Nikolai Spyrydonov
* The Chief Directorate of Border Troops (GUPW)– Grigori Sokolov
* The Chief Directorate of NKVD Troops for Railroad Protection– Aleksandr Guliev
* The Chief Directorate of NKVD Troops for Escort– Vladimir Sharapov
* The Chief Directorate of NKVD Troops for Protection of Industrial Enterprise– I. Kozik
* The Chief Directorate of NKVD Operative Troops– P. Ariemyev
* The Chief Directorate of Military Provision– Aleksandr Wurgaft
* The Chief Directorate of Military Construction– Ivan Luby
* Directorate for Prisoners of War– Pyotr Soprunienko
* Directorate for Construction in the Far East– Ivan Nikishev
* Main Financial Department– Lazar Bierienzon
* Main Department for Civil Status– Fyedor Sokolov〕
On February 3, 1941, the Special Sections of the NKVD responsible for military counterintelligence (CI) became part of the Army and Navy (RKKA and RKKF, respectively). The GUGB was separated from the NKVD and renamed the "People's Commissariat for State Security" (NKGB). After the German invasion, the NKVD and NKGB were reunited on 20 July 1941. The CI sections were returned to the NKVD in January 1942. In April 1943, the CI sections were again transferred to the People's Commissariats ''(Narkomat)'' of Defense and the Navy, becoming ''SMERSH'' (from ''Smert' Shpionam'' or "Death to Spies"); at the same time, the NKVD was again separated from the NKGB.
In 1946, all Soviet Commissariats were renamed "ministries". Accordingly, the NKVD of the USSR was renamed as the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), while the NKGB was renamed as the Ministry of State Security (MGB). In 1953, after the arrest of Lavrenty Beria, the MGB was merged back into the MVD. The police and security services were finally split in 1954 to become:
* The USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), responsible for the criminal militia and correctional facilities.
* The USSR Committee for State Security (KGB), responsible for the political police, intelligence, counter-intelligence, personal protection (of the leadership) and confidential communications.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』